Arnstein Rynning Arneberg was born in Fredrikshald as a son of factory manager Mauritz Otto Edward Arneberg (1845–1913) and Hermione Nicoline Mathilde Rynning (1858–1944). Arnstein Arneberg grew up in Lysaker in Oslo.
In 1910 he married Aagot Kielland Skavlan (1888–1960), a daughter of professor Olaf Skavlan. After the marriage was dissolved in 1923 Arneberg married Eva Elisabeth Reimers (1901–1987). A daughter from the first marriage, ceramicist Gro Skavlan Arneberg, was married to economist and politician Egil Lothe.
From 1899–1902, he was a student at the Royal Drawing School, now the Norwegian National Academy of Craft and Art Industry in Oslo. Arneberg began his education of the architect with employment as assistant to the architect, Alfred Christian Dahl (1857–1940) in Oslo from 1888–1900. Arneberg studied at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm from 1904 to 1906. He also studied with Swedish architects Isak Gustaf Clason, Gustaf Lindgren, and Erik Lallerstedt. In Stockholm, he studied with a group of Norwegian architect students who came to be influential in the academic environment, including Magnus Poulsson.
In 1908, Arneberg established his own architectural practice. He and architect Ole Sverre (1865–1952) worked as partners on Arneberg's earliest works, including a proposal for the royal villa in Voksenkollen in Oslo. As an independent architect, Arneberg's work included a large array of residences, office buildings, churches, railroad stations, and interiors. He is most famous for his work on the Oslo City Hall (with Magnus Poulsson) and interior design of the UN Security Council in New York City. The Viking Ship Museum in Bygdøy, built for the Oseberg ship was completed in 1926. The halls for the ships from Gokstad and Tune were completed in 1932. He also worked on Skaugum, the official residence of the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Norway.
Arneberg was one of the first recipients of the Medal of St. Hallvard in 1956. He was named a Commander with Star of the Order of St. Olav and received the King Haakon VII's Jubilee Medal and the King Haakon VII's Commemorative Medal in gold. He was made a commander of the Order of the Polar Star and was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts in Stockholm. The Østfold Architectural Association named the Arnstein Arneberg Prize in his honor. The prize was first awarded for the 50-year anniversary of the ØAF in 2008.
- Uranienborg Church (interior design), 1930
- Volda Church, Volda, 1929–32
- Viking Ship Museum (Oslo), 1926–1932
- Akershus Castle (restored and rebuilt), 1932–1948
- Glemmen Church, Fredrikstad, 1949
- Hamar Cathedral (extensive renovation), 1954
- Park Hotel and Hvalfangstens Hus, Sandefjord, 1957–60
- Skjerstad Church, Bodø, (1959)
- Høyanger Church (1960)
- Seip, Elisabeth. "Arnstein Arneberg". In Helle, Knut. Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- Steenstrup, Bjørn, ed. (1973). "Lothe, Egil". Hvem er hvem? (in Norwegian). Oslo: Aschehoug. p. 350. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
- The Viking Ship Museum (Kulturhistorisk museum)
- Skaugum in Asker (The Royal Family)
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