Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
|DOPA decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase)|
|Locus||Chr. 7 p11|
It catalyzes several different decarboxylation reactions:
- L-DOPA to dopamine - a neurotransmitter
- 5-HTP to serotonin (5-HT) - also a neurotransmitter
- tryptophan to tryptamine - a precursor to many alkaloids found in plants and animals
- Phenylalanine to phenethylamine - trace neurotransmitter
- L-Tyrosine to Tyramine - trace neurotransmitter
As a rate-limiting step
In normal dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter synthesis, AAAD is not the rate-limiting step in either reaction. However, AAAD becomes the rate-limiting step of dopamine synthesis in patients treated with L-DOPA (such as in Parkinson's Disease), and the rate-limiting step of serotonin synthesis in people treated with 5-HTP (such as in mild depression or dysthymia). AAAD is inhibited by Carbidopa outside of the blood brain barrier to inhibit the premature conversion of L-DOPA to Dopamine in the treatment of Parkinson's.
Interactive pathway map
Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]
- The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "NicotineDopaminergic_WP1602".
The gene encoding the enzyme is referred to as DDC and located on chromosome 7 in humans. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and other gene variations have been investigated in relation to neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g., a one-base pair deletion at –601 and a four-base pair deletion at 722–725 in exon 1 in relation to bipolar disorder and autism. No direct correlation between gene variation and autism was found.
- PDB 1JS3; Burkhard P, Dominici P, Borri-Voltattorni C, Jansonius JN, Malashkevich VN (November 2001). "Structural insight into Parkinson's disease treatment from drug-inhibited DOPA decarboxylase". Nat. Struct. Biol. 8 (11): 963–7. doi:10.1038/nsb1101-963. PMID 11685243.
- Logan, Carolynn M.; Rice, M. Katherine (1987). Logan's Medical and Scientific Abbreviations. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. p. 3. ISBN 0-397-54589-4.
- Lisa J. Scherer, John D. McPherson, John J. Wasmuth and J. Lawrence Marsh (June 1992). "Human dopa decarboxylase: Localization to human chromosome 7p11 and characterization of hepatic cDNAs". Genomics 13 (2): 469–471. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90275-W. PMID 1612608.
- A. D. Borglum, T. G. Bruun, T. E. Kjeldsen, H. Ewald, O. Mors, G. Kirov, C. Russ, B. Freeman, D. A. Collier & T. A. Kruse (November 1999). "Two novel variants in the DOPA decarboxylase gene: association with bipolar affective disorder". Molecular Psychiatry 4 (6): 545–541. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4000559. PMID 10578236.
- Marlene B. Lauritsen, Anders D. Borglum, Catalina Betancur, Anne Philippe, Torben A. Kruse, Marion Leboyer & Henrik Ewald (May 2002). "Investigation of two variants in the DOPA decarboxylase gene in patients with autism". American Journal of Medical Genetics 114 (4): 466–460. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10379. PMID 11992572.
- Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)