Construction and Design
The arpa jarocha is a small harp that is played while seated. It has a wooden frame, a resonator, a flat soundboard, 32-36 nylon or metal strings, and does not have pedals. This harp is tuned diatonically over five octaves. The top of its soundboard arches outward due to the tension of the strings. Unlike other Mexican harps, the arpa jarocha has its sound holes located on the back of the sound board instead of on the front.
How It Is Played
As previously stated, the arpa jarocha is played while seated, similarly to its ancestor the Spanish harp from the 16th century. The performer uses one hand to play the bass line on the low strings, and used the other hand to play arpeggiated melodies on the higher strings. The soundboard has also been known to be used as a percussive device.
Where/When It Is Played
The arpa is one of the main instruments used in the conjunto jarocho; a type of Mexican folk ensemble. The musical style in which arpa jarocha is also heard is "sones jarochos," which blends Spanish and African-influenced rhythms. Within this genre, the arpa typically provides the main melodies, while instruments such as the jarana guitar and the requinto provide basic rhythms and counter-melodies.
The arpa jarocha is from Veracruz, Mexico. one of the various forms of harp that evolved from models introduced by Spain in the 16th century, and traced even back further to the Arabs who had occupied Spain for 700 years.
The indigenous people of Veracruz had never before seen stringed instruments before the Conquest, and quickly adapted their own version which became a pivotal instrument used in many different musical ensembles in Veracruz, but also the rest of Mexico and the Latin Americas.
Some references have stated that the arpa jarocha was used in Jalisco, Michoacán, and among the Chamula Indians; this is incorrect. Each of those regions developed their own adaptation of the baroque Spanish harp. Also, there were regional harps in Zacatecas and in the North with the Yaqui Indians of the northern desert and southwest US.
Who Plays This
Both Men and Women play this instrument, although a greater percentage are men.
Where Can It Be Found Today?
The arpa jarocha can be found in Mexico City, Tijuana, Southern California, and many other locations.
There are multiple variations of the Arpa, depending on where it comes from. Arpa LLanera, Arpa Aragüeña, Arpa Criolla originating in Venezuela, and Arpa Indígena originating in Peru, Arpa Paraguaya originating in Paraguay.
- Courteau, Mona-Lyn and Daniel Sheehy (2003). "Part III Musical Instruments: 13. Stringed Instruments: Harp.". In John Shepherd, et al. Continuum Encyclopedia Of Popular Music Of The World. Vol. 2. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 427–437. ISBN 9780826463227.
- Ortiz, Alfredo Orlando (1991). "History of Latin American Harps". Harp Spectrum. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Atlas Cultural de México. Música. México: Grupo Editorial Planeta. 1988. ISBN 968-406-121-8.