Arran (Caucasus)

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Arran (Middle Persian form), also known as Aran, Ardhan (in Parthian), Al-Ran (in Arabic),[1][2] Aghvank and Alvank (in Armenian), (Georgian: რანი-Ran-i ) or Caucasian Albania[1][3] (in Latin), was a geographical name used in ancient and medieval times to signify the territory which lies within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers,[2] including the highland and lowland Karabakh[2] (Artsakh[4]), Mil plain and parts of the Mughan plain, and in the pre-Islamic times, corresponded roughly to the territory of modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan.[2] The term is the Middle Persian[5][6] equivalent to the Greco-Roman Albania. It was known as Aghvania, Alvan-k[1] in Armenian, and Al-ran[1][2] (Arabized form of Arran[5]) in Arabic. The native name for the country is unknown.[7]

Today, the term Aran is mainly used in Azerbaijan to indicate territories consisting of Mil and Mughan plains[citation needed] (mostly, Beylaqan, Imishli, Saatli, Sabirabad provinces of the Republic of Azerbaijan).[citation needed] It has also been used by Iranian historian Enayatollah Reza to refer to the country of Azerbaijan, freeing the name "Azerbaijan" to refer to a region within Iran.[8] (The bulk of the territory of Rep. of Azerbaijan was the historic Shirvan as well as Kuba/Qubbah).

Origins of the name[edit]

According to some legends and ancient sources, such as Movses Kagankatvatsi, (Albanian) Arran or Arhan[9] was the name of the legendary founder of Caucasian Albania, who in some versions was son of Noah's son Yafet (Japheth) and also, possibly the eponym of the ancient Caucasian Albanians (Aghvan),[10] and/or the Iranian tribe known as Alans (Alani). The nearby Araks (Aras) river was known to Ancient Greek geographers as the Araxes, and has a source near from Mount Ararat. James Darmesteter, in his discussion of the geography of the Avesta's Vendidad I, observes that the 12th century Bundahishn (29:12) identified the "Airyana Vaego by the Vanguhi Daitya" on the northern border of Azerbaijan, and did so "probably in order that it should be as near as possible to the seat of the Zoroastrian religion yet without losing its supernatural character by the counter-evidence of facts."[11] Darmesteter further associated the Vanguhi Daitya river with the Araxes, and compared the name "Airyana Vaego" with that of Arran.[12]

According to C.E. Bosworth:

Boundaries[edit]

In pre-Islamic times, Caucasian Albania/Arran was a wider concept than that of post-Islamic Arran. Ancient Arran covered all eastern Transcaucasia, which included most of the territory of modern day Azerbaijan Republic and part of the territory of Dagestan. However in post-Islamic times the geographic notion of Arran reduced to the territory between the rivers of Kura and Araks.[2]

In a medieval chronicle "Ajayib-ad-Dunya", written in the 13th century by an unknown author, Arran is said to have been 30 parasangs (200 km) in width, and 40 farsakhs (270 km) in length. All the right bank of the Kura river until it joined with the Aras was attributed to Arran (the left bank of the Kura was known as Shirvan). The boundaries of Arran have shifted throughout history, sometimes encompassing the entire territory of the present day Republic of Azerbaijan, and at other times only parts of the South Caucasus. In some instances Arran was a part of Armenia.[13]

Medieval Islamic geographers gave descriptions of Arran in general, and of its towns, which included Barda, Beylagan, and Ganja, along with others.

History of Arran[edit]

History of Arran is summarized in History of Azerbaijan section, where you can refer for detailed description.

Pre-Islamic[edit]

Main article: Caucasian Albania

Islamic[edit]

Following the Arab invasion of Iran, the Arabs invaded the Caucasus in the 8th century and most of the former territory of Caucasian Albania was included under the name of Arran. This region was at times part of the Abbasid Caliphate based on numismatic and historical evidence. Dynasties of Parthian or Persian descent, such as the Mihranids had come to rule the territory during Sassanian times. Its kings were given title Arranshah, and after the Arab invasions, fought against the caliphate from the late 7th to middle 8th centuries.

Early Muslim ruling dynasties of the time included Rawadids, Sajids, Salarids, Shaddadids, Shirvanshahs, and the Sheki and Tiflis emirates. The principal cities of Arran in early medieval times were Bardha'a (Partav) and Ganja. Bardha'a reached prominence in the 10th century, and was used to house a mint. Bardha'a was sacked by the Rus and Norse several times in the 10th century as result of the Caspian expeditions of the Rus. Bardha'a never recovered after these raids and was replaced as capital by Baylaqan, which in turn was sacked by the Mongols in 1221. After this Ganja rose to prominence and became the central city of the region. The capital of the Shaddadid dynasty, Ganja was considered the "mother city of Arran" during their reign.

The territory of Arran became a part of the Seljuq Empire, followed by the Ildegizid state. It was taken briefly by the Khwarizmid dynasty and then overran by Mongol Hulagu empire in the 13th century. Later, it became a part of Chobanid, Jalayirid, Timurid, and Safavid states.

People[edit]

The population of Arran consisted of a great variety of peoples.[7] Greek, Roman and Armenian authors provide the names of the some peoples who inhabited the lands between the Kur and Araxes rivers:

  • Utians and Mycians — apparently migrants from the south,
  • Caspians, Gargarians and Gardmans
  • Sakasenians — of Scythian origin,
  • Gelians, Sodians, Lupenians, Balasanians — possibly Caucasian tribes,
  • Parsians and Parrasians — were probably Iranian

In the late 4th century, when the region passed to Caucasian Albania, its population consisted of Armenians and Armenicized aborigines, though many of the latter were still cited as distinct ethnic entities.[7]

In pre-Islamic times the population of Arran and most of Caucasian Albania had mostly been Christian who belonged to the Church of Caucasian Albania.[2] Under Arabic rule (7th to 9th centuries) a part of the population was Islamicized and adopted the Sunni branch of Islam, which was later largely replaced by the Shia branch.[citation needed] Muslim chronicles of the 10th century reported that some of the population of Arran spoke al-rānīya, as well as Arabic and Persian languages.[14][15][16] Because there is no written evidence, some scholars have presumed al-rānīya to be an Iranian dialect[17] while others have presumed it to be a remnant of a Caucasian Albanian language. The area in which there was Ganja, during the 9th to 12th century named Arran; its urban population spoke mainly in the Persian language.[18][19]

After the Turkification of the region, the population became Turkic speaking, and thus referred to by Europeans, particularly the Russians, as Tartars. They were much later called Azerbaijanis.

The population of Arran which remained Christian, was ultimately absorbed by the Armenians and in part by the Georgians.[7]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Bashi, Munnjim, Duwal Al-Islam
  • Minorsky, V.,Studies in Caucasian history, Cambridge University Press, 1957
  • Volkmar Gantzhorn, Oriental Carpets

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d V. Minorsky. Caucasica IV. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 15, No. 3. (1953), p. 504
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Bosworth, C. E. "ARRĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 
  3. ^ Juvaynī, ʻAlāʼ al-Dīn ʻAṭā Malik (1997). Genghis Khan: the history of the world conqueror. Manchester University Press ND. p. 148. ISBN 0-7190-5145-2. The province of Arran, classical Albania, lay within the great triangle of land formed by the junction of the Kur and the Aras, of which the greater portion now forms part of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan, the remainder belonging to the Republic of Armenia 
  4. ^ C. J. F. Dowsett. "The Albanian Chronicle of Mxit'ar Goš", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 21, No. 1/3. (1958) p. 475: "In Albania, Xacen, part of the old province of Arcax, had preserved its independence, and we know that it was partly at the request of one of its rulers, Prince Vaxtang, that Mxit'ar composed his lawbook."
  5. ^ a b Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. The Society, published 1902, page 64. Text states: "In Mustawfi's lists, however, the Arabic article has everywhere disappeared and we have Ray, Mawsil, etc.; while names such as Ar-Ran and Ar-Ras (spelt Al-Ran, Al-Ras in the Arabic writing), which in the older geographers had thus the false appearance of Arab names, in the pages of Mustawfi appear in plain Persian as Arran and Aras."
  6. ^ Prasad, Ganga. The Fountain Head of Religion. Published by the Book Tree in 2000, page 46
  7. ^ a b c d Robert H. Hewsen. Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians, in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Hg.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity, Chico: 1982, 27-40.
  8. ^ "Arran, the real name of Adjerbadjan", Interview with Reza, Iran Chamber Society, retrieved 2010-02-28.
  9. ^ Kirakos' History of the Armenians
  10. ^ Moses Kalankatuatsi. History of country of Aluank. Chapter IV.
  11. ^ Darmesteter, James (trans., ed.). "Vendidad." Zend Avesta I (SBE 4). Oxford University Press, 1880. p. 3, p. 5 n.2,3.
  12. ^ Darmesteter's translation and notes
  13. ^ Abi Ali Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Rustah, al-A'laq Al-Nafisah, Tab'ah 1,Bayrut : Dar al-Kutub al-ʻIlmiyah, 1998, pg 96-98.
  14. ^ In Russian, text states: Язык в Адербейджане, Армении и Арране персидский и арабский, исключая области города Дабиля: вокруг него говорят по-армянски: в стране Берда'а язык арранский.
  15. ^ Al-Muqaddasi, 985
  16. ^ Ibn-Hawqal, 978
  17. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, "Azerbaijan: Islamic history to 1941." C. E. Bosworth:"North of the Aras, the distinct, presumably Iranian, speech of Arrān long survived, called by Ebn Hawqal al-rānīya"
  18. ^ История Востока. В 6 т. Т. 2. Восток в средние века. М., «Восточная литература», 2002. ISBN 5-02-017711-3 (History of the East. In 6 volumes. Volume 2. Moscow, publishing house of the Russian Academy of sciences «East literature»): The multi-ethnic population of Albania's left-bank (of the Kura) at this time is increasingly moving toward the Persian language. Mainly this applies to cities of Aran and Shirvan, as begin from 9-10 centuries named two main areas in the territory of Azerbaijan. With regard to the rural population, it would seem, mostly retained for a long time, their old languages, related to modern Daghestanian family, especially Lezgin. (russian text: Пестрое в этническом плане население левобережнoй Албании в это время все больше переходит на персидский язык. Главным образом это относится к городам Арана и Ширвана, как стали в IX-Х вв. именоваться два главные области на территории Азербайджана. Что касается сельского населения, то оно, по-видимому, в основном сохраняло еще долгое время свои старые языки, родственные современным дагестанским, прежде всего лезгинскому.
  19. ^ Дьяконов, Игорь Михайлович. Книга воспоминаний. Издательство "Европейский дом", Санкт-Петербург, 1995., 1995. - ISBN 5-85733-042-4. cтр. 730-731 Igor Diakonov. The book of memoirs.