Arriva

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Type Subsidiary company
Industry Public transport
Founded 1938
Headquarters Sunderland
England
Key people David Martin (CEO)
Products Bus, coach, ferry, train & trolleybus services
Revenue 4,180 million (December 2013)
Operating income 467 million (December 2013)
Owners Deutsche Bahn
Employees 55,900 (October 2013)
Subsidiaries
Website www.arriva.co.uk

Arriva[1] is a multinational public transport company headquartered in Sunderland, England. It was established in 1938 as T Cowie and through a number of mergers and acquisitions was renamed Arriva in 1997 and became a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn in 2010.

Arriva operates bus, coach, train, tram and waterbus services in 14 countries across Europe. As at October 2013 it employed 55,900 people and operated 1.5 billion passenger journeys annually.[2]

History[edit]

Arriva North West Wright Eclipse Gemini bodied Volvo B7TL in Liverpool in March 2013 in the Interurban livery
Arriva North West & Wales Wright Cadet bodied VDL SB120 in September 2007 in the livery introduced when the Arriva brand was launched in 1997

The company was founded by TSK Cowie in Sunderland in 1938 as a second-hand motorcycle dealer trading as T Cowie Limited.[3] In 1948 the business was re-launched by Tom Cowie, the founder's son, still selling motorcycles.[4] T Cowie plc was floated in December 1964, and in 1965 it bought out the first of many car dealerships.[5]

In 1972 it formed Cowie Contract Hire, which became the largest contract hire business in the United Kingdom.[4] In 1980 T Cowie made its first foray into bus operations, buying the Grey-Green operation in London from the George Ewer Group.[3][6]

In 1984 T Cowie plc acquired the Hanger Group, which included Interleasing, a large vehicle leasing business.[4][7] Further leasing companies acquired were Marley Leasing,[8] RoyScot Drive[9] and Ringway Leasing.[6] Following the retirement of Tom Cowie, the company was renamed Cowie Group plc in April 1994.[1]

As part of the privatisation of London bus services, Cowie Group acquired the Leaside Buses and South London Transport business units in September 1994 and January 1995.[10]

Cowie plc bought United Automobile Services and British Bus in July and August 1996, both of which had acquired a number of privatised bus companies.[3][11] As a result of these transactions, in October 1996 Cowie Group was reclassified on the stock exchange from a motor dealer to a transport group.[12]

In November 1997 the company was rebranded as Arriva plc.[3] In that year it also bought Unibus in Denmark, its first venture outside the United Kingdom.[3]

In June 1999 Arriva sold its vehicle-hire business to General Motors.[7][13] In February 2000 Arriva purchased MTL Holdings, which included its first UK rail franchises, Merseyrail Electrics and Northern Spirit.[3][14][15] In 2002/03 Arriva sold its motor-retailing businesses[16] and in February 2006 it sold its vehicle-rental business to Northgate.[17] In April 2008 the LNWR train maintenance business in England was acquired.[18]

In 2010 it was reported that the government-owned railway companies of France (SNCF) and Germany (Deutsche Bahn) were considering making takeover bids for the business.[19][20] SNCF subsidiary Keolis and Arriva entered discussions regarding a merger,[21] but in April 2010 Deutsche Bahn made a takeover offer for Arriva at 775 pence a share (£1.585 billion).[22][23] The takeover was approved by the European Commission in August 2010, conditional on Deutsche Bahn disposing of some Arriva services in Germany.[24] The takeover took effect on 27 August 2010,[25][26] and Arriva was delisted from the London Stock Exchange on 31 August 2010.[27]

In late 2011 Arriva acquired Grand Central Railway[28][29] and sold its Arriva Scotland West bus operation.[30][31] In May 2013 Arriva purchased Veolia Transport's Central European business with 3,400 vehicles.[32][33][34]

Current operations[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Bus[edit]

In May 2013 Arriva entered the Croatian bus market with the purchase of Veolia Transport(Panturist Veolia Osijek) Central Europe with 120 buses.[33][35]

Czech Republic[edit]

Vogtlandbahn Eurorunner in April 2010

Bus & coach[edit]

In December 2006 Arriva purchased Transcentrum Bus, a leading company operating bus services in Mladá Boleslav District of Central Bohemian Region, north east of Prague. In January 2007 Arriva acquired Bosák Bus, which operates to the south west of Prague and the Příbram District of Central Bohemian Region, strengthening its position in the Czech Republic bus market. In November 2007 Arriva acquired Osnado, which operates bus and coach services in the north of Hradec Králové Region in East Bohemia, in the foothills of Krkonoše mountains. The three bus companies retain their original names but with the Arriva corporate logo and livery. They are owned by holding company Česká republika and operate 250 buses.[36]

In July 2013 Veolia Transport Česká republika was purchased with its four subsidiary companies which were renamed Arriva Morava, Arriva Praha, Arriva Teplice and Arriva Východní Čechy. These four companies are owned by holding company Arriva Transport Česká republika. It is the largest bus operator in the Czech Republic with a fleet of 1,600 buses.[32][33] It also operates trolleybuses in Teplice (Arriva Teplice) and trains in Desná Railway (Arriva Morava).[37]

In December 2013 Abellio's Probo Bus and PT Real operations were purchased with 110 buses.[38][39]

Train[edit]

German rail transport company Vogtlandbahn, owned by Arriva since 2004, operates several train routes in the Czech Republic as a subcontractor of České dráhy (fasttrain line alex Nord: München – Regensburg – Hof – Plzeň – Praha, line VB2 Zwickau – Plauen – Bad Brambach – Františkovy Lázně – Cheb – Mariánské Lázně, line VB8 Marktredwitz – Schirnding – Cheb) and GW Train Regio, formerly Viamont (line VB1 Zwickau – Klingenthal – Kraslice – Sokolov). Since Dezember 2010, Vogtlandbahn operates under its own name the line Trilex (Liberec – Zittau – Varnsdorf – Rybniště/Seifhennersdorf).

In September 2013 Arriva vlaky commenced operating a service from Praha Masarykovo nádraží to Kralupy nad Vltavou in competition with České dráhy.[40]

Four trains on the local Desná Railway, operated by Connex Morava (lately Veolia Transport Morava) since 2002, were taken over by Arriva Morava in July 2013.

Denmark[edit]

Alstom Coradia LINT train in Denmark in September 2007
Waterbus in Copenhagen in August 2012

Bus[edit]

In September 1997 Arriva purchased Unibus.[41] In March 1999 Arriva Denmark expanded with the acquisition of Bus Danmark[41] In April 2001 Arriva acquired Denmark's largest bus operator, Combus with 1,200 vehicles.[41][42] In August 2004 Arriva purchased Wulff, which operated buses in Jutland and Copenhagen.[43] In 2007 Arriva acquired Veolia Denmark, then Denmark's second largest bus operator with 640 buses.[41][44] Arriva operates 50% of bus services in Copenhagen and 40% throughout Denmark.[41]

Train[edit]

In mid-2002 Arriva began to operate services on the Varde to Nørre Nebel line.[45] In March 2012 Arriva were awarded a new franchise until June 2018.[46][47]

In 2003 Arriva commenced operating an eight year contract to operate services in mid Jutland. In March 2009 Arriva were awarded a new franchise until December 2018.[48] Arriva operates 17% of the Danish rail network.[41]

Waterbus[edit]

In 2000 Arriva commenced operating waterbuses in Copenhagen's harbour.

Hungary[edit]

VT Transman Mercedes-Benz O530G Citaro in Budapest in June 2013

Bus[edit]

In April 2008 Arriva purchased an 80% shareholding in Eurobus Invest, Hungary's largest private bus operator which operates services in Hungary and Slovakia.[49] In 2009 Arriva purchased the remaining 20%.[50] Arriva's are in a joint venture with Videoton Holding operating as VT Transman.

In May 2013 VT Transman commenced operating two bus contracts in Budapest for eight years.[51][52] This will see 150 Mercedes-Benz Citaros added to the 225 bus fleet. The joint venture now operates under the VT-Arriva brand.

Italy[edit]

Bus & coach[edit]

In July 2002 Arriva purchased SAB Autoservizi and SAF - Società Autoservizi Friuli-Venezia Giulia' operating in the Lombardy, Liguria and Friuli-Venezia Giulia regions of northern Italy.[53]

In May 2004 Arriva expanded into the Udine area of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region purchasing 49% of 500 bus SAF,[54] exercising an option in December 2005 to increase its stake to 60%.[55] In October 2005 Arriva began operating in the Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta regions of northern Italy with an 80% shareholding in SADEM, increased to 100% in 2008. In 2006 Arriva purchased a 35% share in Trieste Transport, increased in 2007 to 40%.[53]

In June 2007 Arriva entered a joint venture with Ferrovie Nord Milano to purchase 49% of 317 bus SPT Linea, which was then renamed ASF Autolinee.[53][56][57]

In 2008 it took control of Brescia based SAIA Transporti.[53]

Netherlands[edit]

Bus & coach[edit]

DAF MB200 in March 2001
VDL Citea in November 2012

In January 1998 Arriva purchased Vancom Nederland followed in December 1998 by Veonn & Hanze.[58][59]

In June 1999 it formed a joint venture with Nederlandse Spoorwegen to operate bus services in Friesland, taking 100% ownership in 2003 and renaming it Arriva Openbaar Vervoer.[58]

In 2003 it won further work in Drenthe and Province of Groningen. It won further contracts in 2005 in Drenthe and Waterland and later in the Drechtsteden, Alblasserwaard, Rivierenland, Meierij, Oost-Brabant, and Vijfheerenlanden areas. In 2009 Arriva lost the contracts in Drenthe and Groningen upon retendering but in 2010 won a contract in Achterhoek and retained the Rivierenland contract. From December 2012 Arriva won the contract for Zuid Holland North, around Leiden, Alphen aan den Rijn and Gouda and in Friesland around Leeuwarden.[58][60][61][62]

Contracts[edit]
Name From Until
Rivierenland 01 Jan 03 11 Dec 10
Waterland 11 Dec 05 10 Dec 11
Drechtsteden/Alblasserwaard/Vijfheerenlanden 01 Jan 07 31 Dec 18
Hoeksche Waard/Goeree-Overflakkee 01 Jan 08 15 Dec 14
Meierij 10 Dec 06 09 Dec 14
Oost-Brabant 10 Dec 06 09 Dec 14
Ameland 01 Mar 09 31 Dec 15
Schiermonnikoog 01 Mar 09 31 Dec 15
Terschelling 01 Mar 09 31 Dec 15
Vlieland 01 Mar 09 31 Dec 15
Achterhoek/Rivierenland 12 Dec 10 01 Jan 21
Lelystad/Flevoland 04 Sep 11 04 Sep 21
North and Southwest Friesland 09 Dec 12 12 Dec 20
Zuid Holland Noord 09 Dec 12 12 Dec 20

Train[edit]

Spurt Stadler GTW in September 2008

Arriva established a joint venture with Nederlandse Spoorwegen in 1999.[58] taking 100% ownership in 2003.[58] In 2005 it secured a 15 year contract to operate trains from Groningen to Leeuwarden, Delfzijl, Roodeschool and Nieuweschans. It also secured a contract to operate trains from Leeuwarden to Harlingen Haven and to Stavoren. Later that year it secured a contract to operate trains from Dordrecht to Gorinchem and on to Geldermalsen (MerwedeLingelijn).[58] In 2012 Arriva commenced operating trains in the Achterhoek and between Zwolle and Emmen. These services operate under the Spurt brand.

In December 2015, Arriva will commence operating a service between The Hague and Brussels.[63][64]

Contracts[edit]
Name From Until
Groningen/Friesland 11 Dec 05 15 Dec 20
Merwede-Lingelijn 01 Jan 07 31 Dec 18
North and Southwest Friesland 09 Dec 12 11 Dec 27
Gelderland/Achterhoek 09 Dec 12 01 Jan 21
Zwolle-Emmen 09 Dec 12 01 Jan 21

Poland[edit]

SA 134 multiple unit at Toruń station

Bus[edit]

In May 2013 Arriva entered the Polish market through its acquisition of Veolia Transport Central Europe with 840 buses.[32][33][34]

Train[edit]

Arriva formed Arriva PCC, a joint venture with PCC Rail in December 2006.[65] In December 2007 Arriva commenced operating services on all non-electrified lines in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship.[66] In June 2010 Arriva took 100% ownership of the business and renamed it Arriva RP.[67] In December 2010 Arriva RP won a 10 year extension.[67][68]

In December 2013 Arriva will commence operating trains on four electrified lines in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship for two years with 12 existing trains.[69][70]

Portugal[edit]

Bus & coach[edit]

In November 2000 Arriva purchased João Carlos Soares e Filhos, Viacao Costa & Lino Lda, Ami-Transportes and Abílio da Costa Moreira & C Lda who were running inter-urban local bus services in the north west of Portugal.[59][71]

In June 2002 Arriva Purchased a 51% shareholding Transportes Sul do Tejo, a scheduled bus and coach operator in the growing commuter region south of Lisbon. In September 2003 Arriva exercised an option to buy the remainder of the company.[71] In May 2006 Arriva acquired a 21.5% share of leading transport company Barraqueiro, with bus and rail operations in and around Lisbon, increasing the shareholding in January 2008 to 31.5%.[71]

Arrive operates the city bus services in Guimarães and Vila Nova de Famalicão.

Serbia[edit]

Bus[edit]

In May 2013 Arriva entered the Serbian bus market with the purchase of Veolia Transport Central Europe (Veolia Transport Litas in Požarevac and Veolia Transport Luv in Belgrade) with 250 buses.[33][35]

Slovakia[edit]

Bus[edit]

In April 2008 Arriva purchased an 80% shareholding in Eurobus Invest, Hungary's largest private bus operator which also operates services Slovakia.[49] In 2009 Arriva purchased the remaining 20%[72] In 2013 Arriva purchased the Slovakian operations of Veolia Transport Central Europe with 320 buses.[33][35]

Slovenia[edit]

Bus[edit]

In May 2013 Arriva entered the Slovenian bus market with the purchase of Veolia Transport Central Europe (Veolia Transport Štajerska, Veolia Transport Dolenjska and Primorska) with 270 buses.[33][35]

Spain[edit]

Bus[edit]

In July 1998 Arriva purchased Mercancia Ideal Gallego followed in September 1999 by Transportes Finisterre, both in Galicia.[59] Their services cover three of the four provinces in the region: A Coruña, Lugo and Ourense, including part of the famous Santiago pilgrimage route. In January 2002 Arriva commenced operating in Majorca with the purchase of Autocares Mallorca and Bus Nord.[73] These operate on the northern and western parts of the island, linking the capital Palma with towns such as Soller, Inca and Alcúdia.

In 2007 Arriva acquired Autocares Fray Escoba and Esferain Madrid. In July 2008 Arriva purchased Empresa de Blas y Cia which operates routes between Madrid and its southwestern suburbs (Alcorcón, Móstoles, Villaviciosa de Odón, Navalcarnero...), and between these very suburbs.[73]

Sweden[edit]

Bus[edit]

Arriva has operated bus lines in southern Sweden/The Skåne Region since 1997 when it purchased Unibus of Denmark.[74]

Arriva operates bus lines in some municipalities of Stockholms län: Sigtuna kommun, Upplands Väsby kommun and Ekerö kommun.[75] In August 2012 Arriva commenced operating in the Bromma, Täby and Solna parts of Stockholm with 255 buses under a 12 year contract with the regional transport authority.[76][77] In January 2013 a further 229 buses were added.[78][79]

Arriva has operated services in the Halland Region since June 2010, partly taking over services from Swebus.[80]

Train[edit]

In June 2007 Arriva won a nine-year franchise for the Pågatåg regional rail services in Skåne County, south Sweden.[66]

In 2009 Arriva expanded its rail operations in the country with a new contract operating the Kinnekulletåget between Göteborg and Örebro.[74] In December 2010 DB Regio Sverige AB started to operate regional trains in Östgötapendeln. In November 2011 the company was renamed Arriva Östgötapendeln AB.

Since August 2012, Arriva has operated Stockholm area tramlines Tvärbanan, Nockebybanan as well as the light rail systems Lidingöbanan and Saltsjöbanan.[76] In January 2013, Arriva commenced operating commuter trains on Roslagsbanan north of Stockholm.[78]

United Kingdom[edit]

Bus and coach[edit]

Arriva's bus network in the UK originates from its acquisition of Grey-Green in 1980 and British Bus in August 1996.[3] It has the following operating units:

Patient Transport[edit]

Arriva Transport Solutions provides non-emergency ambulance services, typically to convey disabled patients to and from hospital out-patient appointments. These services, formerly provided by ambulance services are now awarded by competitive tender. The company has been running these services in Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire and Rutland since 2012. A report by the Care Quality Commission in 2014 by the CQC said that patients were "often" arriving late for appointments, and taxi drivers with "poor attitudes" being used when other resources were unavailable.[81]

Train[edit]

Main article: Arriva UK Trains

Arriva has operated a number of rail franchises in the UK since privatisation in 1996 though its subsidiary, Arriva UK Trains. It gained its first franchises in February 2000, though both these have now been lost. Arriva UK Trains currently runs a number of train operating companies:

Arriva UK Trains wishes to expand the number of UK Rail businesses it operates by developing open access operations and successfully bidding for further Department for Transport rail franchises.[85] Alliance Rail Holdings continues to develop new open access proposals following the rejection of its initial plans by the Office of Rail Regulation in 2011.[86]

During 2011/12 Arriva's applications to bid for the InterCity West Coast, Greater Anglia, Essex Thameside and Thameslink franchises were all rejected by the Department for Transport. Following this run of failure Arriva was publicly critical of the government's prequalification process and called for it to be abolished.[85] However Arriva has since been shortlisted to for the Greater Western, Crossrail, Caledonian Sleeper and ScotRail franchises.[87]

Former operations[edit]

Siemens Desiro in July 2009

Germany[edit]

Bus[edit]

In February 2005 Arriva purchased Shippel, a bus operator in the Rhine Main.[88] In May 2006 Verkehrsbetriebe Bils was purchased followed in December 2006 by 80% of NeiBeverkehr.[89]

Train[edit]

In April 2004 Arriva purchased Prignitzer Eisenbahn Gruppe which operated five franchises. In October 2004 a 77% shareholding, increased later in the year to 93%, was purchased in Regentalbahn.[88] In 2007 Arriva purchased an 85% shareholding in Osthannoversche Eisenbahnen.[89]

As part of the takeover of Arriva by Deutsche Bahn, Arriva's German railway operations were sold to Ferrovie dello Stato to comply with a European Commission condition.[24][90][91] These are now branded as Netinera.

Malta[edit]

Bus[edit]

King Long in Sliema in October 2011
Mercedes-Benz O530G Citaro at the Malta depot in July 2011

In July 2011 Arriva commenced operating a ten-year concession to operate all scheduled bus services on Malta and Gozo.[92] Arriva held a 67% shareholding with the local Tumas Group owning the remaining 33%.[93]

The main fleet of Arriva Malta was formed of 172 new King Long buses.[94][95] These are supported on high-density routes by 68 former Arriva London Mercedes-Benz O530G Citaro articulated buses. Ten hybrid Optare Solos and two Bluebird mini-buses for use in the city of Valletta were also purchased.[96] An assortment of the newest buses from the former owner/driver pre-July 2011 operation were also acquired and refurbished to bring them broadly into line with the rest of the fleet. This included the fitting of air conditioning and CCTV equipment and rebranding into standard Arriva livery for daily use alongside the main fleet. These included buses built by SCARNIF, MCV, BMC, King Long and Saracakis among others, with the main common factor being that they are all fully automatic and low floor designs.

Arriva has been harshly criticized both by commuters and by the government agency Transport Malta for consistently failing to keep up standards. On 14 November 2012, Arriva was harshly reprimanded by Transport Malta and given until the end of the month to bring up all its routes to 100% efficiency before TM deploys its own shuttles at Arriva's expense.[97]

In August 2013, the Government of Malta instructed Arriva Malta to remove the articulated buses from service, pending investigation following three major fire outbreaks in the span of 48 hours.[98] The fires destroyed the buses and in one case caused extensive damage to some nearby vehicles belonging to MaltaPost, the country's postal operator. Nobody was injured in these incidents. Like in the UK when the same buses had caught fire, these buses became a popular joke in conversations and social media sites.[99]

By the end of December 2013 Arriva had run up losses of €50 million in two and a half years.[100]

On 1 January 2014 Arriva ceased operations in Malta having been nationalised by the Maltese government as Malta Public Transport, with a new bus operator to take over its operations in the near future.[101][102]

United Kingdom[edit]

Bus[edit]

Train[edit]

Branding[edit]

Green Line Van Hool bodied VDL SB4000 in London in May 2011
Sapphire branded Arriva Buses Wales Alexander Dennis Enviro 400 in Wrexham in May 2013

Prior to being rebranded as Arriva in November 1997, the Cowie fleets generally were still trading under their pre-privatisation names with individual liveries. As part of the rebranding the operations were renamed as Arriva Derby, Arriva Fox County etc.

A uniform livery of aquamarine (pantone 321) with a cream coloured semicircle at the front with a yellow skirt and signwriting was adopted. This livery was adopted by most by Arriva's European acquisitions as well as Arriva Trains Northern and Arriva Trains Wales. The same livery was applied to the Arriva London fleet albeit with red in lieu of aquamarine to comply with a Transport for London requirement for buses to be 80% red. Latterly, London vehicles have been painted all-over red to comply with Transport for London's new requirements.

In the mid-2000s, an aquamarine livery with less cream, a dark blue skirt and yellow stripe was adopted for some longer distance services in the United Kingdom. Dubbed the interurban livery, in September 2009 it was decided to adopt this livery as standard for all UK buses. Most European operations retain the old livery, although some Czech buses have also received it. In December 2008 Arriva Trains Wales unveiled a dark blue livery on its Mark 2 carriages, this has since been adopted as its standard livery.

Exceptions to standard livery include:

Arriva has introduced the Sapphire brand for its premium services in similar fashion to Stagecoach Gold with buses fitted with leather sets and WiFi.[104][105]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Arriva at a glance Arriva October 2013
  3. ^ a b c d e f g History and growth Arriva
  4. ^ a b c Background Sir Tom Cowie
  5. ^ Keleny, Anne (1 February 2012). "Sir Tom Cowie: Founder of a transport empire". The Independent (London). 
  6. ^ a b "How Arriva arrived in the Capital" Focus Transport February 2012
  7. ^ a b History Masterlease
  8. ^ "Cowie is raising £45 million for expansion" Glasgow Herald 24 September 1987
  9. ^ "Henly's criticises jump in earnings at Cowie" The Independent 31 July 1992
  10. ^ The Arriva London Story. Arriva London.
  11. ^ Principal bus operating subsidiaries of British Bus. Competition Commission 1997.
  12. ^ "All change as Cowie swaps to buses". Lancashire Telegraph (Blackburn). 8 October 1996.
  13. ^ Cope, Nigel (12 June 1999). "GM unit buys Arriva car hire in £513m deal". The Independent (London). 
  14. ^ Recommended Cash Offer for MTL Services. Arriva. 18 February 2000.
  15. ^ "Arriva buys MTL for £84m". Rail (Peterborough). Issue 378. 8 March 2000. page 13.
  16. ^ Shah, Saeed (15 October 2002). "EU move prompts Arriva to sell car dealerships". The Independent (London). 
  17. ^ Muspratt, Caroline (31 January 2006). "Arriva sells off car rental arm". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  18. ^ "Arriva acquires LNWR". Railway Gazette (London). 18 November 2008.
  19. ^ "FTSE flat but Arriva perks up on talk French backing to bid" The Daily Telegraph 24 March 2010
  20. ^ "Arriva moves ahead on bid battle hopes". The Guardian 24 March 2010.
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  22. ^ "Response to Press Reports Regarding Deutsche Bahn AG" (Press release). Arriva. 19 April 2010. 
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  24. ^ a b DB/Arriva European Commission 11 August 2010
  25. ^ "EC approves DB's takeover of Arriva". Railway Gazette International (London). 11 August 2010. 
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  29. ^ a b "Arriva in Grand Central Railway takeover". BBC News. 4 November 2011.
  30. ^ a b "Arriva exits Scotland with Sale to McGill's" Bus & Coach Professional 14 December 2011
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  39. ^ Completion of Sale of Probo Bus and PT Real to DB Arriva Abellio 2 December 2013
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  41. ^ a b c d e f Arriva Denmark
  42. ^ "Arriva buys top Danish operator for £8.50" The Daily Telegraph 17 January 2001
  43. ^ Acquisition Arriva 20 July 2004
  44. ^ "Arriva agrees to purchase Veolia Danmark" (Press release). Arriva. 4 July 2007. 
  45. ^ Arriva reveals £150m Danish franchise deal The Scotsman 7 January 2002
  46. ^ Arriva Danmark signs new Vestbanen contract Railway Gazette 29 March 2012
  47. ^ Arriva Denmark extends Vestbanen contract Global Rail News 30 March 2012
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  50. ^ Hungary Arriva
  51. ^ Budapest bus contracts strengthen Arriva's Hungarian presence Arriva 7 November 2012
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  54. ^ Arriva grows its position in the Italian public transport market Arriva 4 May 2004
  55. ^ Arriva Increases Interest in SAF, Italy Arriva 2 December 2005
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  59. ^ a b c Arriva Timeline Arriva
  60. ^ Bus contract win in the Netherlands Eurotransport 12 April 2012
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  62. ^ Arriva begins to operate four contracts in the Netherlands Arriva 12 December 2012
  63. ^ Arriva selected to operate Den Haag - Brussels inter-city service Railway Gazette 21 June 2013
  64. ^ Arriva to operate The Hague - Brussels services International Rail Journal 21 June 2013
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  71. ^ a b c Arriva Portugal Arriva
  72. ^ Slovakia Arriva
  73. ^ a b Arriva Spain Arriva
  74. ^ a b Arriva Sweden Arriva
  75. ^ Plan för SLs upphandling av buss- och spårtrafik 2009-2012
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  78. ^ a b DB Arriva launches second phase of largest Swedish regional transport contract Deutsche Bahn 8 January 2013
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  80. ^ Arriva vinner trafik i Halland
  81. ^ "Arriva patient transport promises improvements". BBC News. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  82. ^ SRA Announces Preferred Bidder for New Integrated Wales Franchise Strategic Rail Authority 1 August 2003
  83. ^ Arriva welcomes new CrossCountry rail franchise award Arriva 10 July 2007
  84. ^ Welcome to LNWR London & North Western Railway
  85. ^ a b "Rail Professional interview: Bob Holland". Rail Professional. October 2011.
  86. ^ "Alliance Rail Holdings Restates its Position on New Rail Services for the West Coast Main Line" (Press release). Alliance Rail Holdings. 4 May 2012. 
  87. ^ "Bidders to oversee improvements on rail franchises announced" (Press release). Department for Transport. 29 March 2012. 
  88. ^ a b Annual Report 31 December 2004 Arriva
  89. ^ a b Annual Report 31 December 2006 Arriva
  90. ^ Commission clears proposed acquisition of Arriva by Deutsche Bahn, subject to conditions Europa 11 August 2010
  91. ^ Deutsche Bahn concludes sake of the Arriva Germany-Group Global Rail News 28 February 2011
  92. ^ Arriva signs contract to operate buses in Malta Arriva 25 November 2010
  93. ^ Tumas Group sells off Arriva stake - reports Malta Today 15 October 2012
  94. ^ Arriva confirms new bus order for Malta Arriva 2 February 2011
  95. ^ King Long handover busandcoach.com 10 April 2011
  96. ^ Arriva places 2 million order for hybrid buses with Optare Times of Malta 3 March 2011
  97. ^ Peregrin, Christian (18 November 2012). "Arriva is given a harsh warning and a deadline". Times of Malta (Valletta). Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  98. ^ "Updated - Ministry, Transport Malta, tell Arriva to withdraw all bendy buses". timesofmalta.com. 27 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  99. ^ Memes after bendy-bus fire outbreak in Malta Times of Malta 27 August 2013
  100. ^ Government to take on less than €15m of Arriva's debt Times of Malta 29 December 2013
  101. ^ "Arriva Future Decided". Di-Ve Malta News. 22 December 2013.
  102. ^ [1] "New Year in, Arriva out". Times of Malta. 23 December 2013.
  103. ^ RATP Dev acquires leading London sightseeing operator RATP Dev
  104. ^ Sapphire investment brings sparkle to bus services Arriva 20 June 2013
  105. ^ Arriva launches Sapphire upgrade busandcoach.com 21 February 2013

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