|Fate||Bankruptcy, assets bought by S&S Arrow|
|Predecessor||Arrow Development Company Inc
Arrow Huss Inc
|Headquarters||Clearfield, Utah, United States|
Arrow Dynamics was a roller coaster and amusement ride design company based in Clearfield, Utah, United States. Formerly known as Arrow Development (1946–1981) and Arrow Huss (1981–1986), Arrow Development was responsible for some of the most influential advancements in the roller coaster industry. Among the biggest was the tubular steel track design for roller coasters, which provided a smoother ride than flat rails commonly used at the time on wooden roller coasters. The design was the company's first foray into the roller coaster industry and was used on their first roller coaster, the Matterhorn Bobsleds at Disneyland, in 1959. Following its success, Disney invested in Arrow, who would continue designing trend-setting roller coasters over the next 45 years.
In 1975, Arrow introduced Corkscrew, a roller coaster at Knott's Berry Farm that sent riders through a series of looping spirals. Though not the world's first roller coaster to invert its riders, it was the first in modern times. The use of tubular steel and spiraling design provided a smooth and safe experience absent from earlier looping coasters in the 1800s. Arrow reached additional milestones over the years by introducing the first suspended roller coaster in almost a century, The Bat, which opened in 1981, and the world's first hypercoaster, Magnum XL-200, which opened in 1989.
The company's ownership changed hands several times through the 1970s and 1980s, and it was forced to declare bankruptcy on more than one occasion. Though it was able to persevere under new ownership and re-emerge from its second bankruptcy in 1986 forming the successful Arrow Dynamics, it eventually met its demise on December 3, 2001, when the company filed for its final bankruptcy. S&S Worldwide purchased a portion of Arrow's assets on October 28, 2002, but the remainder of the company was ultimately dissolved.
Arrow Dynamic's forerunner, Arrow Development, was founded in 1946 when Ed Morgan, Karl Bacon, Bill Hardiman, and Angus "Andy" Anderson, started a small machine shop at 243 Moffett Boulevard, just north of downtown Mountain View, California. They started out small, building playgrounds, merry-go-rounds and other rides for local amusement parks.
In 1953, they contacted Walt Disney, who was just beginning to plan a new type of amusement park in California. Disney admired Arrow's work and hired the company to help design and build the ride systems for many of Disneyland's original and early rides, including Mad Tea Party, King Arthur Carrousel, Mr. Toad's Wild Ride, Casey Jr. Circus Train, and Snow White's Scary Adventures.
While Arrow was designing and testing these rides, Walt Disney made frequent trips to Mountain View to check on their progress. Then the rides were quickly shipped down to Anaheim to be ready for the park's opening. Disney continued to use Arrow as he expanded Disneyland. The company went on to build Dumbo the Flying Elephant, Autopia, and Alice in Wonderland in coming years.
Move toward roller coaster manufacturing
In 1959, Arrow Development designed what was to be the first of their many roller coasters, the Matterhorn Bobsleds at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. Built in conjunction with WED Imagineering, the ride was the first modern tubular steel tracked roller coaster in the world.
After construction of the Matterhorn, Disney bought a third of Arrow Development and Arrow moved into a larger plant at 1555 Plymouth in Mountain View, California. At the new location, Arrow went on to develop new ride systems for Disney and developed the vehicles and tracks for It's a Small World, Pirates of the Caribbean, Adventure Thru Inner Space, and the Haunted Mansion.
Arrow also created rides for other amusement parks. It developed the modern log flume ride, which can be seen around the country in many amusement and theme parks today, with the first being El Aserradero at Six Flags Over Texas in 1963. In the 1970s, the company perfected and brought back the loop into modern roller coasters.
Arrow Development began to make significant advancements in the roller coaster industry as well as major installations throughout the United States. In 1975, Arrow installed one of the most important rides of its time, Corkscrew, which made its debut at Knott's Berry Farm as the world's first modern inverting coaster. Arrow made dozens of coasters throughout the decades, including several Corkscrew-style coasters, many "runaway mine train" coasters like Cedar Creek Mine Ride and Adventure Express, custom-designed coasters like Loch Ness Monster, and Carolina Cyclone.
Some of Arrow Development's later projects included what were at the time the world's tallest roller coasters, such as Magnum XL-200 at Cedar Point in 1989 and Pepsi Max Big One at Blackpool Pleasure Beach in 1994.
Reorganizations and bankruptcy
In 1971, Karl Bacon, Ed Morgan and Walter Schulze sold Arrow Development to Rio Grande Industries. At the time, Penn Central owned Six Flags and Rio Grande had plans to build several theme parks of their own, in addition to owning a coaster-building company.:224 After almost a decade of ownership, Rio Grande sold Arrow in 1981 to the German manufacturing firm, Huss Maschinenfabrik, which merged with Arrow Development to form Arrow Huss. Dana Morgan (Ed Morgan's son) was appointed president and Ron Toomer was made vice president and manager of engineering. Although the Arrow coasters continued to sell well, Huss got into financial trouble, partially due to heavily investing in Darien Lake theme park in New York and the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition in New Orleans.:225 Arrow Huss filed for bankruptcy protection in 1985, and 13 of the company's American officers negotiated a buyout. In 1986, the takeover was approved by the courts and the company re-emerged as Arrow Dynamics. Ron Toomer served as president until 1993, then Chairman of the Board until 1995, then as a consultant director until his retirement in 1998.
In the late 1990s, Arrow Dynamic's workload steadily decreased, with few installations toward the end of the decade. Other manufacturers such as Bolliger & Mabillard and Vekoma entered the field, and Arrow was no longer the dominant steel coaster manufacturer. Bankruptcy loomed once again as Arrow made their final attempt to stay afloat with X (subsequently known as X2) at Six Flags Magic Mountain, a 4th dimension roller coaster designed by Alan Schilke. X opened to massive media attention and received an initially positive reception; however, several mechanical problems caused the ride to be closed for repairs during much of its first year of operation.
The company filed for bankruptcy on December 3, 2001. At the end of October 2002, the company's assets were sold to S&S Arrow, a limited liability company related to amusement ride manufacturer S&S Worldwide.
- 1959: The world's first tubular steel track coaster, Matterhorn Bobsleds, at Disneyland.
- 1963: The world's first Log Flume, El Aserradero at Six Flags Over Texas.
- 1966: The world's first mine train roller coaster, featuring the world's first underwater tunnel, the Runaway Mine Train at Six Flags Over Texas.
- 1975: The world's first modern inverting coaster, Corkscrew, at Knott's Berry Farm.
- 1976: The world's first coaster with 3 inversions, Corkscrew at Cedar Point.
- 1977: The world's first coaster with consecutive vertical loops, Double Loop, at Geauga Lake.
- 1978: The world's first interlocking loops, Loch Ness Monster at Busch Gardens Williamsburg.
- 1980: The world's first coaster with 4 inversions, Carolina Cyclone at Carowinds.
- 1981: The world's first modern suspended coaster, The Bat, at Kings Island.
- 1982: The world's first coaster with 5 inversions, Viper at Darien Lake.
- 1984: The world's first successful suspended coaster, XLR-8 at Six Flags Astroworld and Big Bad Wolf at Busch Gardens Williamsburg
- 1987: The world's first coaster with 6 inversions, Vortex at Kings Island.
- 1988: The world's first coaster with 7 inversions, Shockwave at Six Flags Great America.
- 1989: The world's first Hypercoaster, Magnum XL-200, at Cedar Point.
- 1990: The world's first suspended coaster to go underground, Vampire at Chessington World of Adventures.
- 1994: World's tallest and steepest coaster, Pepsi Max Big One at Blackpool Pleasure Beach in Great Britain.
- 2002: The Olympic Cauldron for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City was lit. Arrow Dynamics designed the steel frame supporting the structure designed by WET Design.
- 2002: The world's first 4th dimension coaster, X, at Six Flags Magic Mountain.
- Gurr, Bob (November 27, 2013). "DESIGN: Those Were The Times – No.23 1955 Arrow Development – Ed Morgan and Karl Bacon". MiceChat. Retrieved 2013-11-28.
- "Arrow Story". Archived from the original on 2002-12-07. Retrieved 2008-01-02.
- O'Brien, Tim (2006). Legends: Pioneers of the Amusement Park Industry. Ripley Entertainment. pp. 224–225. ISBN 9781893951136.
- Seifert, Jeffrey (December 2011). "Ron Toomer 1930–2011 (Obituary)". ACE News (American Coaster Enthusiasts) 34 (2).
- O'Brien, Tim (August 12, 2002). "S&S moves to snap up defunct rivals". Amusement Business 114 (32): 1, 9.
- O'Brien, Tim (November 4, 2002). "S&S affiliate catches Arrow". Amusement Business 114 (44): 8.
- "Roller Coaster History Timeline". Ultimate Rollercoaster. Retrieved 2011-11-27.
- "Runaway Mine Train – Six Flags Over Texas". Ultimate Rollercoaster. Retrieved 2011-11-27.
- "Controversy and Confusion Surround Geauga Lake Auction". ACEonline.org. American Coaster Enthusiasts. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Front Seat On Ride Video of Arrow Dynamics Prototype 4D Roller Coaster X2
- S&S Worldwide, who manufacturer select Arrow products
- Arrow: Building a Dream from themagiceye at Joyland Books