Arrow Rock, Missouri
|Arrow Rock, Missouri|
|• Total||0.13 sq mi (0.34 km2)|
|• Land||0.13 sq mi (0.34 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2)|
|Elevation||709 ft (216 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||56|
|• Density||430.8/sq mi (166.3/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||0713403|
Arrow Rock is a village in Saline County, Missouri, United States, located along the Missouri River. This area of the state was called "Little Dixie" because so many early migrants came from the Upper South, bringing their slaves and culture with them.
Although the busiest river port in the county before the American Civil War, the population was 79 as of the 2000 Census (56 as of the 2010 Census). The musical films Tom Sawyer (1973) and Huckleberry Finn (1974), both based on novels by Mark Twain, were partially shot here. Arrow Rock Historic District has significant properties. The George Caleb Bingham House, home of the nationally known painter for several years, has been designated a U.S. National Historic Landmark.
As of the census of 2010, there were 56 people, 36 households, and 16 families residing in the village. The population density was 430.8 inhabitants per square mile (166.3 /km2). There were 61 housing units at an average density of 469.2 per square mile (181.2 /km2). The racial makeup of the village was 98.2% White and 1.8% from two or more races.
There were 36 households of which 2.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.9% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 55.6% were non-families. 47.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.56 and the average family size was 2.06.
The median age in the village was 61.7 years. 1.8% of residents were under the age of 18; 0% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 12.6% were from 25 to 44; 44.6% were from 45 to 64; and 41.1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the village was 46.4% male and 53.6% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 79 people, 39 households, and 24 families residing in the town. The population density was 592.5 people per square mile (234.6/km²). There were 62 housing units at an average density of 465.0 per square mile (184.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 100.00% White.
There were 39 households out of which 17.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.9% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.52.
In the town the population was spread out with 13.9% under the age of 18, 3.8% from 18 to 24, 11.4% from 25 to 44, 35.4% from 45 to 64, and 35.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 57 years. For every 100 females there were 97.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $45,000, and the median income for a family was $46,875. Males had a median income of $46,250 versus $35,417 for females. The per capita income for the town was $28,344. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line.
- George Caleb Bingham
- Asa Finley
- Claiborne Fox Jackson
- Meredith Miles Marmaduke
- John S. Marmaduke, (1833–1887), born in Arrow Rock, was a general in the Confederate Army and later the Governor of Missouri.
- Dr. John Sappington, popularized the use of quinine pills to treat malaria (ancestor of actress Ginger Rogers)
In 1804 Lewis and Clark passed through Arrow Rock and noted the salt licks around the Missouri River. The town was formed by European-American settlers in 1829, when westbound settlers and traders decided they liked the area. They originally called the settlement Philadelphia, but in 1833 changed its name to Arrow Rock. For thousands of years, Native Americans gathered flint from the area to make arrowheads.
Due to Arrow Rock's location on the Missouri River and along the Santa Fe Trail, a large number of travelers passed through. Joseph Huston, originally from Virginia, began construction on a two-story brick building in 1834, which became known as the Old Tavern. The Old Tavern was a general store and tavern, and also served as a hotel. Settlers were predominately migrants from the Upper South of Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee, and they brought their slaves and culture with them. This was part of the area along the Missouri River that became known as "Little Dixie" in the antebellum years. The town developed as a river port, exporting tobacco and hemp from plantations in the region, which were worked by African-American slaves. They were also held as domestic workers and laborers at the port.
“By 1860, Arrow Rock had become Saline County’s most important river port, with a population of more than 1,000. Nearly half that number were African Americans.” (The Village of Arrow Rock, 2007). The town has preserved the Old Tavern, the stone gutters on Main Street, and other early structures.
These historical forces contributed to local legislative oddities that persist to this day. In 1863, a shipment of supplies for Union outposts on the western frontier ran aground on a mud flat exposed by a drought's shifting of the Missouri River. Proprietors of the Old Tavern claimed the supplies under a uniquely Western interpretation of maritime law, and offloaded the shipment as day turned into night. The most fungible goods - 500 pounds of coffee beans and sundry associated grinders - were removed first, along with the tactically prudent small arms ammunition. When authorities arrived the following morning to dispute the claims, they found the local citizenry overly alert and well-armed. In the ensuing firefight, a stray round glancing off the native flint struck sparks which ignited several kegs of gunpowder remaining aboard the stranded barge. Both sides quickly terminated the dispute.
It is rumored that the errant shot was fired by the Mayor while under the influence of fresh-brewed coffee laced with quinine and other anti-malarials, which caused his hands to tremble and his aim to be poor. In the aftermath of this event, the Mayor blamed the entire incident on the unaccustomed richness of the coffee. He arranged for the local grinding of coffee beans to be outlawed, as a rider to legislation designed to smooth over the state and federal implications of the matter while saving face for the community. To this day, the coffee grinding prohibition remains in effect.
Along with the Old Tavern, Arrow Rock has several other significant historic properties. The J.P. Sites Gun Shop, dated to 1830, began as a cottage. It was remodeled in the mid-1870s, adding two bedrooms upstairs. The J.P. Sites Gun Shop was home to Arrow Rock's gunsmith. Other historic properties include the Log Cabin, the Miler House, the Brown Lodge, the Christian Church, the Lawless House, the Brown Chapel, and the Post Office. The George Caleb Bingham House has been designated a National Historic Landmark.
Dr. Timothy E. Baumann, of Missouri Valley College, has conducted excavations within the community, exploring African-American life and culture. His excavations span the periods of slavery and post-emancipation. He has worked on homes of enslaved African Americans at two plantations, as well as on a post-Civil War African-American community. He researched several households, a schoolhouse, a church, a Masonic lodge, and a speakeasy. Dr. Baumann is the museum consultant for Friends of Arrow Rock, Inc.
Arrow Rock is home to one of Missouri's State Historic Sites, Arrow Rock State Historic Site. This park overlooks the Missouri River.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963.
“The Villages of Arrow Rock: A Bit of History.” 28 April 2008. <http://www.arrowrock.org/history.htm>. Retrieved April 14, 2008. "Missouri Valley College," 2005. Dr. Timothy E. Baumann.<http://www.moval.edu/faculty/baumannt/index.asp> Retrieved April 14, 2008.