Arsenic pentachloride

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Arsenic pentachloride
Ball-and-stick model of a single molecule
Ball-and-stick model of the crystal structure
Identifiers
CAS number 22441-45-8 YesY
Properties
Molecular formula AsCl5
Molar mass 252.1866 g/mol
Structure
Molecular shape Trigonal Bipyramidal (D3h)
Related compounds
Related group 5 chlorides Phosphorus pentachloride
Antimony pentachloride
Related compounds Arsenic pentafluoride
Arsenic trichloride
Arsenic pentoxide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Arsenic pentachloride is a chemical compound of arsenic and chlorine.[1] This compound was first prepared in 1976 through the UV irradiation of arsenic trichloride, AsCl3, in liquid chlorine at −105°C.[2] AsCl5 decomposes at around −50°C. The structure of the solid was finally determined in 2001.[3] AsCl5 is similar to phosphorus pentachloride, PCl5 in having a trigonal bipyramidal structure where the equatorial bonds are shorter than the axial bonds (As-Cleq = 210.6pm, 211.9 pm; As-Clax= 220.7pm).
The pentachlorides of the elements above and below arsenic in group 15, phosphorus pentachloride and antimony pentachloride are much more stable and the instability of AsCl5 appears anomalous. The cause is believed to be due to incomplete shielding of the nucleus in the elements following the first transition series (i.e. gallium, germanium, arsenic, selenium and bromine) which leads to stabilisation of their 4s electrons making them less available for bonding. This effect has been termed d-block contraction and is similar to the f-block contraction normally termed the lanthanide contraction.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. 
  2. ^ K. Seppelt (1976). "Arsenic Pentachloride, AsCl5". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl 15 (6): 377–378. doi:10.1002/anie.197603771. 
  3. ^ Haupt S, Seppelt K, (2002). "Solid State Structures of AsCl5 and SbCl5". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie 628 (4): 729–734. doi:10.1002/1521-3749(200205)628:4<729::AID-ZAAC729>3.0.CO;2-E.