Arsenic pentoxide

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Arsenic pentoxide
Arsenic pentoxide
Identifiers
CAS number 1303-28-2 YesY
PubChem 14771
ChemSpider 14088 YesY
EC number 215-116-9
RTECS number CG2275000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula As2O5
Molar mass 229.8402 g/mol
Appearance white hygroscopic powder
Density 4.32 g/cm3
Melting point 315 °C (decomposes)
Solubility in water 59.5 g/100 mL (0 °C)
65.8 g/100 mL (20 °C)
8.20 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility soluble in alcohol
Acidity (pKa) 7
Hazards
EU classification Very toxic (T+)
Carc. Cat. 1
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrases R45, R23/25, R50/53
S-phrases S53, S45, S60, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 4: Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury. E.g., VX gas Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
LD50 8 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Other cations Phosphorus pentoxide
Antimony pentoxide
Related compounds Arsenic trioxide
Arsenic acid
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Arsenic pentoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula As2O5.[1] This glassy, white, deliquescent solid is relatively unstable, consistent with the rarity of the As(V) oxidation state. More common, and far more important commercially, is arsenic(III) oxide (As2O3). All arsenic compounds are highly toxic and thus find only limited commercial applications.

Structure[edit]

The structure consists of tetrahedral {AsO4} and octahedral {AsO6} centres linked by sharing corners.[2] The structure differs from that of the corresponding phosphorus(V) oxide.

Synthesis[edit]

Historical[edit]

Paracelsus Macquer found a crystallizable salt which he called ‘sel neutre arsenical’. This salt was the obtaining residue after distilling nitric acid from a mixture of potassium nitrate and arsenic trioxide. Previously Paracelsus heated a mixture of arsenic trioxide and potassium nitrate. He applied the term ‘arsenicum fixum’ to the product. A. Libavius called the same product ‘butyrum arsenici’ (butter of arsenic), although this term was actually used for arsenic tricholoride. The products that Paracelsus and Libavius found were all impure alkali arsenates.[3] Scheele prepared a number of arsenates by the action of arsenic acid on the alkalies. One of the arsenates that he prepared, was arsenic pentoxide.[4] The water in the alkalies evaporated at 180˚C, and the arsenic pentoxide was stable below 400˚C .[3]

Modern methods[edit]

Arsenic pentoxide can be crystallized by heating As2O3 under oxygen. This reaction is reversible:[2]

As2O5 \overrightarrow{\leftarrow} As2O3 + O2

Strong oxidizing agents such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric acid convert arsenic trioxide to the pentoxide.

Arsenic acid can be generated via routine processing of arsenic compounds including the oxidation of arsenic and arsenic-containing minerals in air. Illustrative is the roasting of orpiment, a typical arsenic sulfide ore:[5] 2 As2S3 + 11 O2 → 2 As2O5 + 6 SO2

Safety[edit]

Main article: arsenic toxicity

Like all arsenic compounds, the pentoxide is highly toxic. Its reduced derivative arsenite, which is an As(III) compound, is even more toxic since it has a high affinity for thiol groups of cysteine residues in proteins.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. 
  2. ^ a b Martin Jansen (1977). "Crystal Structure of As2O5". Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English 16 (5): 314–315. doi:10.1002/anie.197703142. 
  3. ^ a b J. W. Mellor. "Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic & Theoretical Chemistry". http://www.rexresearch.com/alchemy10/melloras.htm English. IX - Arsenic. 
  4. ^ C.W. Zenger et al. "Arsenic 149". http://tera-3.ul.cs.cmu.edu/NASD/4dcb85c3-9fee-4c83-9e6d-fe6ce5522b59/China/disk4/75/75-2/31005153/HTML/00000166.htm. 
  5. ^ Grund, S. C.; Hanusch, K.; Wolf, H. U. (2005), "Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_113.pub2 

External links[edit]