|Birth name||Ignacio Arsenio Travieso Scull|
August 31, 1911|
Güira de Macurije, Matanzas Province, Cuba
|Died||December 31, 1970
Los Angeles, California, United States
|Genres||Son montuno, guaracha, guaguancó, bolero, afro, cha-cha-cha, lamento|
|Instruments||tres, tumbadora (conga)|
He played the tres (Cuban string instrument) in son-based music and tumbadora, or conga, in folkloric rumba. In the 1940s and 50s Rodríguez reorganized the son conjunto ('son group') and developed the son montuno, the basic template of modern-day salsa. He claimed to be the true creator of the mambo and was an important as well as a prolific composer who wrote nearly two hundred song lyrics.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Rise to Fame
- 3 Innovations
- 4 Deeply rooted in Afro-Cuban folkloric traditions
- 5 Later life and death
- 6 Tributes
- 7 Notable compositions
- 8 Discography
- 9 References
Rodríguez was born in Güira de Macurije in Bolondrón, Matanzas Province as the third of fifteen children, fourteen boys and one girl. As a young child, Rodríguez was blinded when a horse (or a mule) kicked him in the head.
Rise to Fame
Later, Rodríguez became a musician, and eventually became one of the most renowned bandleaders on the island earning him the nickname El Ciego Maravilloso (the Marvellous Blind Man). His music emphasized Afro-Cuban rhythm as well as the melodic lead of the tres, which he played. In 1936 he played his own compositions with the Sexteto Boston, led by his cousin Jacinto Scull. The group disbanded in 1937, and he joined the Septeto Bellamar of cornetist José Interián in 1938. In 1939, he recorded with Orquesta Casino de la Playa, the esteemed sonero Miguelito Valdés on lead vocals, the tune "Se va el caramelero", taking an incredible solo on the tres. This was his first recording. From 1940 to 1947 he led one of the most important bands in Cuba, Arsenio Rodríguez y Su Conjunto Todos Estrellas.
Rodríguez then went to New York where he hoped to get cured of his blindness but was told that his optic nerves had been completely destroyed. This experience led him to compose the bolero La Vida es un Sueño (Life is a dream). He went on to play with percussionist/composer Luciano "Chano" Pozo and other great musical artists of what inaccurately became known as Latin Jazz, artists such as Machito, Dizzy Gillespie and Mario Bauzá.
Rodríguez's chief innovation, his interpretation of the son montuno, established the basic template for Cuban popular dance music and salsa that continues to this day. "It took fifty years for Latin music to catch up with what Arsenio was doing in the 1940s"—Kevin Moore (2007: web).
Clave-based structure and offbeat emphasis
The decades of the 1920s and 1930s were a period which produced some of the most beautiful and memorable melodies of the son genre. At the same time, the rhythmic component had become increasingly deemphasized, or in the opinion of some, "watered-down." Rodríguez brought a strong rhythmic emphasis back into the son. His compositions are clearly based on the key pattern known in Cuba as clave, a Spanish word for 'key,' or 'code.'
When clave is written in two measures, as shown above, the measure with three strokes is referred to as the three-side, and the measure with two strokes—the two-side. When the chord progression begins on the three-side, the song, or phrase is said to be in 3-2 clave. When it begins on the two-side, it's in 2-3 clave. The 2-3 bass line of "Dame un cachito pa' huele" (1946) coincides with three of the clave's five strokes.
David García Identifies the accents of "and-of-two" (in cut-time) on the three-side, and the "and-of-four" (in cut-time) on the two-side of the clave, as crucial contributions of Rodríguez's music. The two offbeats are present in the following 2-3 bass line from Rodríguez's "Mi chinita me botó" (1944).
The two offbeats are especially important because they coincide with the two syncopated steps in the son's basic footwork. The conjunto's collective and consistent accentuation of these two important offbeats gave the son montuno texture its unique groove and, hence, played a significant part in the dancer's feeling the music and dancing to it, as Bebo Valdés noted "in contratiempo" ['offbeat timing']—García (2006: 43).
Moore points out that Rodríguez's conjunto introduced the two-celled bass tumbaos, that moved beyond the simpler, single-cell tresillo structure. This type of bass line has a specific alignment to clave, and contributes melodically to the composition. Rodríguez's brother Raúl Travieso recounted, Rodríguez insisted that his bass players make the bass "sing." Moore states: "This idea of a bass tumbao with a melodic identity unique to a specific arrangement was critical not only to timba, but also to Motown, rock, funk, and other important genres." In other words, Rodríguez is a creator of the bass riff.
Rodríguez's "Juventud amaliana" (1946) contains an example of one of his rhythmically dynamic unison breaks, strongly rooted in clave.
Most of Arsenio's classic tracks from the golden period of 1946-1951 feature a virtuousic and highly-polyrhythmic solo by either Luis "Lilí" Martínez Griñán on piano, Arsenio himself on tres, or occasionally Félix Chappottín or one of the other trumpeters. The solo usually ends with Arsenio's signature [break] lead-in phrase: . X X X X . . . [first measure in the example above]. The figure is usually played on the two-side in 3-2 clave and on the three-side in 2-3 clave, and leads directly to what most timba musicians call a bloque but which in Arsenio's day was called a cierre. It consists of everyone in the band playing the same series of punches, creating extreme rhythmic tension with a combination of cross-rhythms and deceptive harmonies. As [David] García points out, the first four beats of the actual [break] have a rhythm [below] which was used repeatedly in the subsequent decades, most famously by Tito Puente and later Carlos Santana in "Oye Como Va"—Moore (2007).
Moore is referring to the second and third measures of the break in the previous example. Here is that figure in relation to 2-3 clave. When the pattern is used as a type of block chord guajeo, as in "Oye Como Va," it's referred to as ponchando.
Rodríguez introduced the idea of layered guajeos (typical Cuban ostinato melodies)—an interlocking structure consisting of multiple contrapuntal parts. This aspect of the son's modernization can be thought of as a matter of "re-Africanizing" the music. Helio Orovio recalls: "Arsenio once said his trumpets played figurations the 'Oriente' tres-guitarists played during the improvisational part of el son" (1992: 11). Oriente is the easternmost province of Cuba, where the son was born. It is common practice for treseros to play a series of guajeo variations during their solos. Perhaps it was only natural then that it was Rodríguez, the tres master, who conceived of the idea of layering these variations on top of each other. The following example is from the "diablo" section of Rodríguez's "Kila, Quique y Chocolate" (1950). The excerpt consists of four interlocking guajeos: piano (bottom line), tres (second line), 2nd and 3rd trumpets (third line), and 1st trumpet (fourth line). 2-3 Clave is shown for reference (top line). Notice that the piano plays a single celled (single measure) guajeo, while the other guajeos are two-celled. It's common practice to combine single and double-celled ostinatos in Afro-Cuban music.
During the 1940's, the conjunto instrumentation was in full swing, as were the groups who incorporated the jazz band (or big band) instrumentation in the ensemble, guajeos (vamp-like lines) could be divided among each instrument section, such as saxes and brass; this became even more subdivided, featuring three or more independent riffs for smaller sections within the ensemble. By adopting polyrhythmic elements from the son, the horns took on a vamp-like role similar to the piano montuno and tres (or string) guajeo"—Mauleón (1993: 155).
Expansion of the son conjunto
The denser rhythmic weave of Rodríguez's music required the addition of more instruments. Rodríguez added a second, and then, third trumpet—the birth of the Latin horn section. He made the bold move of adding the conga drum, the quintessential Afro-Cuban instrument. Today, we are so used to seeing conga drums in Latin bands, and that practice began with Rodríguez. His bongo player used a large, hand-held cencerro ('cowbell') during montunos (call-and-response chorus section). Rodríguez also added a variety of rhythms and harmonic concepts to enrich the son, the bolero, the guaracha and some fusions, such as the bolero-son. Similar changes had been made somewhat earlier by the Lecuona Cuban Boys, who (because they were mainly a touring band) had less influence in Cuba. The overall 'feel' of the Rodríguez conjunto was more African than other Cuban conjuntos.
Rodríguez took the pivotal step of replacing the guitar with the piano, which greatly expanded the contrapuntal and harmonic possibilities of Cuban popular music.
"Como traigo la yuca", popularly called "Dile a Catalina", recorded in 1941 and Arsenio's first big hit, may be his most famous composition. The first half uses the changüí/son method of paraphrasing the vocal melody but the second half strikes out into bold new territory – using contrapuntal material not based on the song's melody and employing a cross‐rhythm based on sequences of three ascending notes—Moore (2011: 39).
The piano guajeo for "Dame un cachito pa' huele" (1946) completely departs from both the generic son guajeo and the song's melody. The pattern marks the clave by accenting the backbeat on the two-side. Moore observes: "Like so many aspects of Arsenio's music, this miniature composition is decades ahead of its time. It would be forty years before groups began to consistently apply this much creative variation at the guajeo level of the arranging process" (2009: 41).
"No me llores más"  stands out for its beautiful melodies and the incredible amount of emotional intensity it packs into its ultra‐slow 58 bpm groove. The guajeo is based on the vocal melody and marks the clave relentlessly—Moore (2009: 48).
The piano guajeo for "Jumba" (a.k.a. "Zumba") (1951) is firmly aligned with clave, but also has a very strong nengón flavor — something which had rarely, or never, been used in Havana popular music. While Rodríguez was not from Oriente province (where nengón and changüí are played), he had a thorough knowledge of many folkloric styles and his creative partner, the pianist/composer Luis "Lilí" Martínez Griñán, in fact came from that part of the island.
Arsenio's use of modal harmonies pre‐echoes not only songo, salsa, and timba, but rock and soul as well. "Guaragüí"  has not one but two shockingly original chord progressions. [The guajeo] is in D, but the chord progression is in the Mixolydian mode: I – bVII – IV (D – C – G). This virulently addictive little sequence would remain dormant for fifteen years until becoming a pop juggernaut in songs such as "Hey Jude" and "Sympathy for the Devil." In the early 70s, when Juan Formell of Los Van Van reintroduced it to Latin pop, it sounded like a clear borrowing from rock & roll, but here it is in Arsenio's music when rock and rollers were limited to I – IV – V and I – vimi – IV – V, and even Tin Pan Alley had yet to incorporate modal harmonies. Equally interesting from a harmonic standpoint, is "Guaragüí'"s opening progression: imi – IV – bVII – imi (Ami – D – G – Ami). It's the same progression, but in minor, with the IV and bVII inverted—Moore (2009: 53).
Diablo, the proto-mambo?
Leonardo Acosta is not convinced by Rodríguez's claim to have invented the mambo, if by mambo Rodríguez meant the big-band arrangements of Dámaso Pérez Prado. Rodríguez was not an arranger: his lyrics and musical ideas were worked over by the group's arranger. The compositions were published with just the minimal bass and treble piano lines. To achieve the big-band mambo such as by Pérez Prado, Machito, Tito Puente or Tito Rodríguez requires a full orchestration where the trumpets play counterpoint to the rhythm of the saxophones. This, a fusion of Cuban with big-band jazz ideas, is not found in Rodríguez, whose musical forms are set in the traditional categories of Cuban music.
While it is true that the mambo of the 1940s, and 1950s contains elements not present in Rodríguez's music, there is considerable evidence that the contrapuntal structure of the mambo began in the conjunto of Arsenio Rodríguez. While working in the charanga Arcaño y Sus Maravillas, Orestes López "Macho" and his brother Israel López "Cachao" composed "Mambo" (1938), the first piece to use the term. A prevalent theory is that the López brothers were influenced by Rodríguez's use of layered guajeos (called diablo), and introduced the concept into the charanga's string section with their historical composition.
As Ned Sublette observes: "Arsenio maintained till the end of his life that the mambo — the big band style that exploded in 1949 — came out of his diablo, the repeating figures that the trumpets in the band played. Arsenio claimed to have already been doing that in the late 1930s" (2004: 508). As Rodríguez himself asserts: "In 1934, I was experimenting with a new sound which I fully developed in 1938." Max Salazar concurs: "It was Arsenio Rodríguez's band that used for the first time the rhythms which today are typical for every mambo" (1992: 10). In an early article on mambo, published in 1948, the writer Manuel Cuéllar Vizcaíno suggests that Rodríguez and Arcaño's styles emerged concurrently, which might account for the decades-long argument concerning the identity of the "true" inventor of the mambo. In the late 1940s Pérez Prado codified the contrapuntal structure of the mambo within a horn-based big band format.
Throughout the 1940s Arsenio's son montuno style was never referred to as mambo, even though central principles and procedures of his style, such as playing in contratiempo (against the beat), are to be found in mambo. What had made the conjunto and son montuno style so innovative was in fact Arsenio's and his musicians' deep knowledge and utilization of aesthetic principles and performance procedures rooted in Afro-Cuban traditional music in which Arsenio had been immersed as a youngster in rural areas of Matanzas and La Habana. Drawing from these principles and procedures, Arsenio and his colleagues formulated new ways of performing Cuban son and danzón music that arrangers for big bands soon after adapted and popularized internationally as mambo—García (2006: 42).
Deeply rooted in Afro-Cuban folkloric traditions
Arsenio uses proverbs associated with Palo Monte and other traditional passages with Congo lexical passages . . . Arsenio's afrocubanos demonstrate not only the extent of his knowledge of Palo Monte spirituality but also his critique of the discourse on African inferiority and atavismas (1) manifested in racist representational tropes in Cuban popular culture and (2) implied in the ideology of mestizaje (read: racial and cultural "progress"). As he countered in his afrocubanos, these traditions of his youth, through representing a "primitive" era for most of the white Cuban elite as well as black intellectuals, continued to be a vital and powerful aspect of his music and life—García (1006: 21).
On Palo Congo by Sabú Martínez (1957) Rodríguez sings and plays a traditional palo song and rhythm, a Lucumí song for Elegguá, and a rumba and a conga de comparsa accompanied by tres. Rodríguez's 1973 landmark album Quindembo features an abakuá, a Columbia, and several band adaptations of traditional palo songs, accompanied by the bona fide rhythms.
Rodríguez was an authentic rumbero; he both played the tumbadora and composed songs within the rumba genre. Rodríguez recorded folkloric rumbas and also fused rumba with son montuno. His "Timbilla" (1945) and "Anabacoa" (1950) are examples of the guaguancó rhythm used by a son conjunto. On "Timbilla," the bongós fulfill the role of the quinto (rumba lead dThe album Primitivo, from the same period of time (with Monguito el Único and Baby González alternating on lead vocals), is an evocation of the music played in the solares. rum). In "Yambú en serenata" (1964) a yambú using a quinto drum is augmented by a tres, bass, and horns.
In 1956, Rodríguez released the folkloric rumbas "Con flores del matadero" and "Adios Roncona" in Havana. The tracks consist of voice and percussion only. One of the last recordings Rodríguez performed on was the rumba album Patato y Totico by the conguero Carlos "Patato" Valdés and vocalist Eugenio "Totico" Arango (1967). The tracks are purely folkloric, except for the unconventional addition of Rodríguez on tres and the great Israel López "Cachao" on bass. Additional personnel included Papaíto and Virgilio Martí. The album Primitivo, released on Tico Records in 1968 (with Monguito el Único and Baby González alternating on lead vocals), is an evocation of the music played in the solares.
Later life and death
At the end of the 1960s the mambo craze petered out, and Rodríguez continued to play in his typical style, although he did record some boogaloo numbers, without much success. As times changed, the popularity of his group declined. He tried a new start in Los Angeles. He invited his friend Alfonso Joseph to fly out to Los Angeles with him but died only a week later. This was in 1970 and his body was returned for burial to New York. There is much speculation about his financial status during his last years, but Mario Bauzá denied that he died in poverty, arguing that Rodríguez had a modest income from royalties.
There have been a number of tributes to in 1972, was a Larry Harlow LP Tribute to Arsenio Rodríguez, Fania 404. On this, five of the numbers had been recorded earlier by Rodriguez' conjunto. Later, in 1994, The Cuban band Sierra Maestra recorded a CD Sierra Maestra: Dundunbanza!, World Circuit WCD 041. This had four Rodríguez numbers at full length.
Arsenio Rodriguez is mentioned in a national television production called La época, about the Palladium-era in New York, and Afro-Cuban music. The film discusses Arsenio's contributions, and features some of the musicians he recorded with. Others interviewed in the movie include the daughter of legendary Cuban percussionist Mongo Santamaría – Ileana Santamaria, bongocero Luis Mangual and others.
Rodríguez's close friend and bassist for eight years Alfonso "El Panameño" Joseph, as well as other members of Rodríguez's band, such as Julian Lianos, who performed with Rodríguez at the Palladium Ballroom in New York during the 1960s, have had their legacies documented in a national television production called La Epoca, released in theaters in the US in September 2008, and in Latin America in 2009. He had much success in the US and migrated there in 1952 one of the reasons being the better pay of musicians.
Starting in the late 1990s, jazz guitarist Marc Ribot recorded two albums mostly of Rodríguez' compositions or songs in his repertoire:Marc Ribot y los Cubanos Postizos (or Marc Ribot and the Prosthetic/Fake Cubans) and Muy Divertido!.
Belatedly, the borough of the Bronx officially had the intersection of Intervale Ave. and Dawson St. in the area known as Longwood renamed “Arsenio Rodriguez Way" in a dedication and unveiling ceremony on Thursday, June 6, 2013.
“That intersection was the center of his universe,” said Jose Rafael Mendez, a community historian. “He lived in that area. And all the clubs he played, like the Hunts Point Palace, were practically a stone’s throw away.” 
The street designation serves as the crowning jewel after an arduous series of collaborative efforts and events produced last year that rendered tribute to the band leader and resident performer of the Longwood community.
- "Fuego en el 23"
- "Como traigo la yuca"
- "La fonda de el bienvenido"
- "Mami me gustó"
- "Papa Upa"
- "El divorcio"
- "El reloj de la Pastora"
- "Monte adentro"
- "Adiós Roncona"
- "Dame un cachito pa' huelé"
- "Yo no como corazón de chivo"
- "Juégame limpio"
78 rpm phonorecords: 1940-1956, 1960
- "El pirulero no vuelve más (pregón)," A. Rodríguez, "Yo `ta namorá (afro)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 83314 CUCD 1703 (1940).
- "Corazón de hielo" (bolero), A. Rodríguez, "Todos seguimos la conga (conga)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 83530 CUCD 1703 (1941).
- "Llora timbero (rumba)," A. Rodríguez, Columbia 30789 (1941).
- "El dulcero de Güines (pregón)," A. Rodríguez, "Triste soledad (bolero son)," G. García Columbia 30795 (1941).
- "Sediento de amor (bolero son)," Jacinto Scull, "Como traigo la yuca (guaracha)," A. Rodríguez RCA 83948 (1942).
- "Con un solo pie (conga)," B. J. Gutiérrez, "Intranquilidad," Mercedes Valdés RCA 83963 (1942).
- "Sin tu querer (bolero son)," Pablo Cairo, "Sandunguera (guaracha)," Luís Piedra & Marcelino Guerra, RCA 23-0050 CUCD 1703 (1942).
- "Triste lucha (bolero son)," A. Rodríguez, "Naña seré (guaracha)," A. Rodríguez and Guillermo Valdés, RCA 3-0061 (1943).
- "Camina a trabajá, Haragón (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Pilla con pilla," Guillermo Valdés, 23-0082 (1943).
- "Oye como dice," F. Chappottín, "Quién será mi amor? (bolero son)," Mercedes Valdés, RCA 23-0078, CUCD 1703 (1943).
- "A buscar camarón (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "So caballo! (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-0076 (1943).
- "Quien ama no traiciona (bolero son)," A. Rodríguez, "Mi chinita me botó (son guajiro)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-0173 (1944).
- "Oye mi consejo (bolero son)," A. Rodríguez, "Yo no como corazón de chivo (guaracha son)," RCA 23-0193 (1944).
- "Tú no eres culpable (bolero)," Pepe Robles and M. Guerra, "Timbilla (rumba de cajón)," A. Rodríguez, 23-0362 (1945).
- "Estás equivocada (bolero son)," Osvaldo Farrés, "Mujeres, enamórenme (guaracha)," A. Rodríguez, 23-0182 (1945).
- "Nadie más que tú (bolero)," Jacinto Scull, "Agonía (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, 23-0373 (1945).
- "Yeyey (pregón)," Emilio Sanso and O. Gainza, "Mi guane (guajira)," Rafael López, 23-0350 (1945).
- "No hay yaya sin guayacán (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Ya lo verás (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, 23-0401 (1945).
- "Inspiración (bolero)," Pablo Pérez Chorot, "El último amor (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, 23-0428 (1945).
- "Una experiencia más (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, "Cero guapos en Yateras (son)," Luis Martínez Griñán, 23-0519 (1946).
- "Deuda (bolero)," Luis Marquetti, "Canta, montero (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, 23-0452 (1946).
- "Chicharronero (son)," Luis Martínez Griñán, "Dame un cachito pa' huelé (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, 23-0492 (1946).
- "El reloj de la Pastora (son)," A. Rodríguez, "Cangrejo fue a estudiar (son)," A. Rodríguez, 23-0470 (1946).
- "Celos de mujer (guaracha), A. Rodríguez, "Juventud amaliana (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, 23-0655 (1946).
- "Tengo que olvidarte (bolero son)," Jacinto Scull, "Semilla de caña brava (guaracha), Luis Martínez Griñán, 23-0755 (1946).
- "¿Por qué la trajiste? (bolero son)," A. Rodríguez (1946), "Soy el terror (son)," A. Rodríguez (1947), 23-0734.
- "Mi convicción (bolero son)," Luis Martínez Griñán, "Adivínalo (guaracha)," José Luis Forest, 23-0766 (1947).
- "Porque tú sufres (guaracha)," Luciano "Chano" Pozo, "Rumba en swing (guaracha), Luciano "Chano" Pozo, 5057 (1947).
- "Cómetelo todo(guaracha)," Luciano "Chano" Pozo, "Pasó en Tampa (guaracha)," A. Rodríguez, 5053 (1947).
- "Contéstame (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, "Sácale brillo al piso (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, 5061 (1947).
- "Serende (guaguancó)," Luciano "Chano" Pozo, "Seven, Seven (son montuno)," Luciano "Chano" Pozo, 5059 (1947).
- "Lo dicen todas (guaracha)," A. Rodríguez, "La vida es un sueño (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, 23-0828 (1948).
- "Yo no engaño a las nenas (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Tocoloro (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, SMC 1205 (1948).
- "Tumba palo cucuyé (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Tintorera ya llegó (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, SMC 1206 (1948).
- "El tabernero (bolero)," Rafael Ortiz, "El Cerro tiene la llave (guaracha)," Fernando Noa, RCA 23-0888 (1948).
- "Te esperaré (bolero son)," Luis Martínez Griñán, "No vuelvo a Morón (son montuno)," Otilio del Portal, RCA 23-0897 (1948).
- "Esa china tiene coímbre (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Soy tu destino (bolero)," Isolina Carrillo, RCA 23-0946 (1948).
- "No toque el guao (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Me siento muy solo (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-0975 (1948).
- "Sacando candela (guaracha)," Gervacio Kessell, "A Puerto Rico (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-0995 (1948).
- "Monte adentro (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Apurrúñeme mujeres (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, SMC 1209 (1948).
- "Ya me lo dio (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Masango (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, SMC 1210 (1948).
- "A Belén le toca ahora (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, "Los tres Juanas (bolero)," B. J. Gutierrez, RCA 23-1072 (1948).
- "Luna al amanecer (bolero)," Luis Martínez Griñán, "Lo que dice usted (son montuno)," Jesús Guerra Zayas, RCA 23-1105 (1948).
- "Dame un besito (son montuno), A. Rodríguez, "Orgullo inútil (bolero)," Rosendo Ruiz, Jr. RCA 23-1130 (1948).
- "Feliz Viaje (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, "No me llores más (son montuno)," Luis Martínez Griñán, RCA 23-1147 (1949).
- "Flor del fango (bolero)," Cristóbal Dorval, "Que cosas tendrán las mujeres (son montuno)," Luis Martínez Griñán, RCA 23-1171 (1949).
- "En su partir (bolero)," Jacinto Scull, "Pueblo Nuevo se pasó (guaguancó)," Luis Martínez Griñán, RCA 23-1180 (1949).
- "Llévatelo todo (son montuno)," Luis Martínez Griñán, "Mírame más (bolero)," Enrique Hernández, RCA 23-1194 (1949).
- "Me boté de guaño (montuno)," Alfredo "Chocolate" Armenteros, "Es mejor olvidarte (bolero)," René Scull, RCA 23-1336 (1949).
- "El palo tiene curujey (son montuno)," Pascual Bueno Griñán, "Finaliza un amor (bolero)," Raúl Díaz, RCA 23-1367 (1949).
- "Los Sitios Aceré (guaguancó)," Silvio A. Pino, "Sagrado amor (bolero)," Lázaro Prieto, RCA 23-1382 (1949).
- "Dundunbanza (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Flor de canela (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-1488 (1949).
- "Pero yo no sé (bolero)," Félix Chappottín, "Juventud de Colón (guaguancó)," Federico Gayle Suárez, RCA 23-1504 (1950).
- "Kila, Quique y Chocolate (son montuno)," I. Rodríguez, "Vuelvo a la vida (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-1583 (1950).
- "El rumbón de Luyano (guaguancó)," Lázaro Prieto, "Recuerda aquella noche (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-1591 (1950).
- "El rincón caliente (son)," A. Rodríguez, "Qué susto (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-1604 (1950).
- "La sandunga del son (son montuno)," Raul Díaz, "Con reciprocidad (bolero)," B. J. Gutiérrez, RCA 23-5205 (1950).
- "Anabacoa (guaracha)," J. Ramírez, "Cárdenas (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-5209 (1950).
- "Todo terminó (bolero)," I. Rodríguez, "Juventud de Cayo Hueso (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-5219 (1950).
- "Con un amor se borra otro amor (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Ten valor (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-5237 (1950).
- "Ta Benito (afro)," A. Rodríguez, "Aquí como allá (lamento)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-5299 (1950).
- "Te mantengo y no quieres (son montuno)," Rafael Ortíz, "Cree lo que tú quieres (bolero)," J. Rodríguez, RCA 23-5300 (1950).
- "El que no tiene no vale (bolero son)," Félix Chappottin, "Quizás con los años (bolero)," Lázaro Prieto, RCA 23-5304 (1950).
- "Me dijo que sí y le dije que no (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "A falso desprecio (bolero)," Antonio Alonso, RCA 23-5365 (1951).
- "Murumba (rezo negro)," Félix Chappottín, "Negrita (guajira son)," Marcelino Guerra, RCA 23-5432 (1951).
- "Amores de Verano (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, "Te contaré (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-5461 (1951).
- "Amor en cenizas (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, "Mira ... cuidadito (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-5481 (1951).
- "A Graciela (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, "Mira que soy chambelón (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-5520 (1951).
- "Pobre mi Cuba (lamento guajiro)," A. Rodríguez, "Guaraguí (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-5593 (1951).
- "Ya se fue (bolero)," Marcelino Guerra, "Amor a mi patria (lamento)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-5624 (1951).
- "Esclavo triste (lamento)," A. Rodríguez, "La gente del Bronx (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, Tico 10-040 (c. 1951).
- "Mulence (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, "Pa' que gozen (mambo son)," A. Rodríguez, Tico 10-041 (c. 1951).
- "Jaguey (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Meta y guaguancó (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, Tico 10-074 (c. 1951).
- "Esas no (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Como se goza en El Barrio (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, Tico 10-075 (c. 1951).
- "Burundanga (montuno afro)," Félix Chappottín, "Injusta duda (bolero canción)," Enrique González, RCA 23-5644 (1952).
- "Mi conuco (guajira son)," A. Rodríguez, "Pogolotti (guaguancó)," Eloy Oliva, RCA 23-5694 (1952).
- "Yo soy chambelón (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, "Arpegio por Arsenio (solo de tres)," A. Rodríguez, Tico 10-120 (c. 1952).
- "Swing y son (swing-son)," A. Rodríguez, "Maye santa (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, 1 Tico 0-121 (c. 1952).
- "Oiga mi guaguancó (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, "Se va el comparsa (conga)," A. Rodríguez, Tico 10-122 (c. 1952).
- "Oye mi cantar (guajira)," A. Rodríguez, "Ahora capetillo (son capetillo)," A. Rodríguez, Tico 10-123 (c. 1952).
- "No quiero (son capetillo)," I. Rodríguez, "Si me voy (bolero)," I. Rodríguez, Seeco Ex 20-334 (1952).
- "Besarte quisiera (bolero rítmico)," A. Rodríguez, "Se formó el bochinche (son montuno)," I. Rodríguez, Seeco Ex 20-335 (1952).
- "Sólo fue un sueño (bolero)," Felipe Goyco "Don Felo," El dolorcito de mi china (son capetillo)," I. Rodríguez, Seeco Ex 20-347 (1952).
- "Hipocresía (bolero)," I. Rodríguez, "Cambia el paso (son capetillo)," I. Rodríguez, Seeco Seeco Ex 20-348 (1952).
- "Juégame limpio (son capetillo)," A. Rodríguez, "Vive en el recuerdo (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, Seeco Ex 20-369 (1952).
- "Ya voló (conga), Neno González, "Se ama una vez (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, Seeco Ex 20-370 (1952).
- "Que me mande la niña (son mambo)," I. Rodríguez, "Pimienta (son capetillo)," I. Rodríguez, Seeco Ex 20-386 (1953).
- "Pobre chinito (mambo)," I. Rodríguez, "Baila Simón (son montuno)," I. Rodríguez, Seeco Ex 20-385 (1953).
- "Mambo abacuá (mambo)," A. Rodríguez, "Mi primer cariño (cha cha chá)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-6696 (1955).
- "Acerca el oído (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, "Mambo en la cueva (mambo)," Tata Gutiérrez, RCA 23-6734 (1955).
- "Me estoy comiendo un cable (guaracha)," A. Rodríguez, "Cuba cha cha chá (cha cha chá),"A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-6811 (1955).
- "Sobre el arco iris (cha cha chá)," E.Y. Harburg and H. Arlen, "Confórmate (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, 2 RCA 3-6840 (1955).
- "Que negra pa' acelerá (rumba)," A. Rodríguez, "Graciela, tú lo sabes (cha cha chá)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-6985 (1956).
- "Titi, to kundungo quiere papa (cha cha chá)," A. Rodríguez, "Lo sabía (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-6970 (1956).
- "Ayaca de maíz (son pregón)," Silvano Schueg "Chori," "Me quedé sin ti (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-7000 (1956).
- "Adios Roncona (columbia matancera), A. Rodríguez, "Con flores del matadero (guaguancó)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-7120 (1956).
- "Triste lucha (bolero)," A. Rodríguez, "Dame to yoyo Ma Belén (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-7129 (1956).
- "Contigo no soy feliz (bolero)," Jacinto Scull, "Casera mire que caña (son pregón)," A. Rodríguez, RCA 23-7140 (1956).
- "Curazao (bolero-cha)," A. Rodríguez, "Son montuno en Curazao (son montuno)," A. Rodríguez, Grabaciones Angel Job 45-6008 (1960).
- Montunos Cubanos: Estrellas del Ritmo SMC Pro Arte C-508 (1950).
- Palo Congo Sabú L. Martínez. Blue Note LP-1561 (1957).
- Sabroso y Caliente con Arsenio Rodríguez y su Conjunto Puchito 586 (c. 1957).
- Primitivo RST-2261 (1958).
- Cumbanchando con Arsenio (Fiesta en Harlem) SMC-1074 (1960).
- Arsenio Rodríguez y Su Conjunto v. 1 ALP 1337 (c. 1959-1960).
- La pachanga Tico Records TRSLP-1092 (1963).
- Quindembo: Afro Magic La Magia de Arsenio Rodríguez CLT 7049 (1963).
- ¡Viva Arsenio! Arsenio Rodríguez and the Afro-Cubano Sound BLPS-216 (1966).
- Patato y Totico Verve V6-5037 (1967).
- Arsenio Dice Tico LP 1175 (1968).
Arsenio Rodríguez with Chano Pozo and Machito
- Montunos Cubanos SMC reissued: Tumbao Cuban Classics TCD017 (1950).
- Giro, Radamés 2007. Diccionario enciclopédico de la música en Cuba. La Habana, v. 4 p. 45 et seq.
- Orovio, Helio 2004. Cuban music from A to Z. p. 181 gives his birth name as Ignacio Loyola Scull Rodríguez. It is reasonable to prefer the more recent and more complete source (the Cuban 2nd ed of Orovio was published in 1981).
- García, David F. 2006. Arsenio Rodríguez and the transnational flows of Latin popular music. Philadelphia : Temple University Press. p. 13
- Moore, Kevin (2007). "1945 - No hay yaya sin Guayacán". The Roots of Timba part 1. Timba.com.
- Peñalosa, David 2010. The Clave Matrix; Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins p. 133-137. Redway, CA: Bembe Inc. ISBN 1-886502-80-3.
- Moore, Kevin (2007). "Arsenio Rodriguez 1946 Dame un cachito pa' huele". The Roots of Timba part 1. Timba.com.
- "Listen to a midi version of the bass line for Dame un cachito pa' huele". Timba.com.
- García 2006 p. 43.
- García 2006 p. 45.
- Moore, Kevin (2007). "1945 - No hay yaya sin Guayacán". The Roots of Timba part 1. Timba.com.
- Raúl Travieso quoted by David García 2006. Arsenio Rodriguez and The Transnational Flows of Latin Popular Music p. 43.
- Moore 2007. "1945 - No hay yaya sin Guayacán." Timba.com.
- Moore, Kevin (2007). "Arsenio Rodriguez 1946 La juventud amaliana | The Roots of Timba part 1.". Timba.com.
- Moore, Kevin (2007). "Arsenio Rodriguez 1946 La juventud amaliana". The Roots of Timba part 1. Timba.com.
- Peñalosa, David 2010. The Clave Matrix; Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins p. 256. Redway, CA: Bembe Inc. ISBN 1-886502-80-3.
- Helio Orovio quoted by Max Salazar 1992. "Who Invented the Mambo?" part 2. Latin Beat Magazine. v. 2 n. 9: 9. p. 11.
- García 2006 p. 52.
- Mauleón, Rebeca 1993. Salsa Guidebook for Piano and Ensemble p. 155. Petaluma, California: Sher Music. ISBN 0-9614701-9-4.
- It had been a concern of bandleaders since the sextetos of the 1920s that these groups were not loud enough to cope with the large venues and audiences, to which the older típicas were well suited.
- Moore, Kevin 2009. Beyond Salsa Piano: The Cuban Timba Piano Revolution v. 1. Beginning The Roots of Timba p. 39. Santa Cruz, CA: Moore Music/Timba.com. ISBN‐10: 1439265844
- Moore 2009. p. 41.
- Moore 2009. p. 48.
- Moore 2009. p. 52.
- Moore 2009. p. 53.
- see Acosta, Leonardo 2003. Cubano be, cubano bop: one hundred years of jazz in Cuba. Smithsonian, Washington, D.C. p. 86 et seq. for a more complete discussion.
- Salazar, Max 1992. "Who Invented the Mambo?" part 1. Latin Beat Magazine. v. 2 n. 9: 9. p. 10.
- Sublette, Ned 2008. Cuba and its Music; From the First Drums to the Mambo p. 508. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
- Arsenio Rodríguez quoted in Bohemia (1955), cited by Max Salazar 1992. "Who Invented the Mambo?" part 2. Latin Beat Magazine. v. 2 n. 9: 8. p. 11.
- Manuel Cuéllar Vizcaíno cited my García 2006 p. 47.
- García 2006 p. 42.
- Martinez, Sabú Palo Congo. Blue Note CD 226665 (1957).
- Rodríguez, Arsenio Quindembo Sony CD 469742-2 (1973).
- RCA Victor 45 RPM phonorecord 23-0362-B (1945).
- Peñalosa, David 2010. Rumba Quinto p. 186. Redway, CA: Bembe Books. ISBN 1-4537-1313-1
- Cox, Barry (May 30, 2011). "The earliest recordings of Cuban rumba: A comprehensive summary | ¡Vamosa Guarachar!". Esquinarumbera.blogspot.com.
- RCA Victor 78 rpm phonorecord 23-7120 (1956).
- Patato y Totico Verve CD 5037 (1968).
- García, David F. 2006. Arsenio Rodríguez and the transnational flows of Latin popular music. Philadelphia. p. 115
- "laepocafilm.com". laepocafilm.com. 2009-01-31. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "840AM Interview". Retrieved 2012-07-21.
- García, David F. 2006. Arsenio Rodríguez and the Transnational Flows of Latin Popular Music. Philadelphia. p. 68
- Samuels, Tanyanika (Thursday, May 10, 2012). "Reporter". The New York Daily News.
- García 2006 Discography p. 147-160.
- García 2006 Discography p. 160-162.