Arta (Kamuia)

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Arta (or Artas in Kharoshthi) was the elder brother of the well known Gandhara ruler Maues or Moga.[1]

Kharahostes’s own coins attest that Kshatrapa Kharaostes was the son of Artas (Arta):

Kshatrapasa pra Kharaostasa Artasa putrasa (i.e. Kshatrapa Kharaosta, son of Arta).

Some of Kharaosta's known coins write Ortas instead of Artas.

Scholars state that Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio of the Lion Capital Inscriptions is same Kshatrapa Kharaosta whose coins have been studied by Dr Rapson and Dr Luders. It is now generally agreed that Kshatrapa Kharaosta was son Arta, and that Yuvaraja Kharaosta and Kshatrapa Kharaosta were one and same historical personage.[2]

The Inscriptions A and E on the Mathura Lion Capital style Kharaosta as Yuvaraya Kharaosta Kamuio [1].

Based on the estimates of the relative ages of various personages portrayed in Lion Capital Inscriptions, Dr Stein Konow has determined that Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio (i.e. son of Artas) was the father of Aiyasi Kamuia, the chief queen (Agra-Mahisi) of Saka Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula.[3] See also: [2].

An older view was that Arta, the father of Kharaosta, was the first husband of Rajuvula's chief queen who had married Rajuvula after Arta's death. However, Dr S Konow does not accept this view. The fact that last name Kamuia has been used both by Yuvaraja Kharaosta as well as by princess Aiyasi clearly proves that Aiyasi Kamuia was the daughter and not mother of Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio, since it is the father's and not mother's lineage which is adopted by their off-springs.[4]

It appears that Arta (Artas, Ortas) had died before the date of writing of the Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions.

Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio, therefore, was the legitimate inheritor to the position as King of Kings for the kingdom of Gandhara after king Moga.[5]

Saka governor Rajuvula had married princess Aiyasi Kamuia, daughter of Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio, probably to strengthen his political position and also his claim to the throne (of Taxila).[6]

This prospect was obviously not liked by other Saka chiefs. This appears to be the reason as to why the title of Shahanshahi was discontinued and only the titles of Kshatrapa and Mahakshtarpa obtained among the Sakas from that time onwards.[7] These Sakas later organized a Samgha under Rajuvula and Patika when Rajuvula assumed the title of Maha-Ksatrapa for the first time.

It appears, for some reasons, that Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio did not avail the position of King of Kings after Moga's death.

Many scholars including Sten Konow, H. W. Bailey, R. K. Mukerjee, K. P. Jaiswal, J. L. Kamboj, Buddha Prakash and others recognise that the names Kamuia and Kamuio (q.v) of the Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions are the Kharoshthi/Prakritic forms of Sanskrit/Pali Kambojika or Kamboja.[8]

Hence according to one school of scholars, king Maues, his brother Arta, Kharaosta Kamuio and Kharaosta's daughter Aiyasi Kamuia --- all belonged to the Kambojika or Kamboja clan or lineage.[9]

Mahaksatrapa Arta of the Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary[edit]

A recently discovered "Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary", found from Shinkot in Bajaur (Pakistan), and edited and published for the first time by Richard Saloman, in Journal of the American Oriental Society (July- September, 1996), refers to a king named Kharayosta, believed to belong to the later quarter of first century BCE. According to its editor Dr Richard Salomon (University of Washington), king Kharayosta of the "Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary", in all probability, is the same Kharaosta who finds reference as Yuvaraja Kharosta in the Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions as well as, as Kharaostasa or Kharahostes in the coins.[10]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - 1834, p 142, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Corpus Inscrioptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, pp xxxvi, 36, S Konow; Early Inscriptions of Mathurā: A Study, 1980, p 27, Kalyani Das; Ancient India, 1956, p 220, Dr Radha Kumud Mukerjee; History of Indian Administration - 1968, p 94, Dr B. N Puri; These Kamboja People, 1979, p 142; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 168, Kirpaql Singh; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 227/228, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī; Cf: Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen - 1931, p 12, Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Göttingische anzeigen von gelehrten sachen; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 306-09.
  2. ^ Kshatrapasa pra Kharaostasa Artasa putrasa (i.e. Kshatrapa Kharaosta, son of Arta), Political History of ancient India, 1996, p 397/98, Dr Raychaudhury; See also: History and Culture of Indian People, The age of Imperial Unity, p 164, (Editors) Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar; Malwa Through the Ages, p 166, ISBN 81-208-0824-X; Early Inscriptions of Mathurā: A Study, 1980, p 27, Kalyani Das; The Śakas in India, 1981, p 97, Satya Shrava; History of Civilizations of Central Asia, 1999, p 201, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Unesco; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 1905, p 795, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Provincial Administration in Ancient India, 600 B.C.-550 A.D., 1981, p 283, Arun Kumar Sinha; Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency ... -, 1896, p 23, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven; Ṛtam, p 46, Akhila Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow; See: Comprehensive History of India, 1957, Vol II, p 270, Dr K. A. Nilakanta Sastri etc.
  3. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, part I, p 36 & xxxvi, Dr Stein Konow; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 141, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  4. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, part I, p 36 & xxxvi, Dr Stein Konow; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 141, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, p 227/228, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī.
  5. ^ See: Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, part I, p 36 & xxxvi, Dr Stein Konow; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 141, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, p 227/228, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 397, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury.
  6. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, p 36 & xxxvi; Ancient India, 1956, p 220, Dr Radha Kumud Mookerji; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, p 227/228, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 168, Kirpal Singh; See quote in: Early Inscriptions of Mathurā: A Study, 1980, p 27, K. Das.
  7. ^ Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, p 227/228, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī.
  8. ^ Khroshthi Inscriptions, No 15, A3; Notes on Indo-Scythian chronology, Journal of Indian History, xii, 21; Corpus Inscrioptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, pp xxxvi, 36, Dr. S. Konow e.g: "If we bear in mind that 'mb' becomes 'm', i.e mm in the dialect of the Kharoshthi Dhammapada and that common 'o' becomes 'u' as in Sudasa, then Kamuia may very well represent Sanskrit Kambojika" (Dr Konow); cf: "The Kamuiyas, who are associated with the family of the Saka Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula of the Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions, are in fact, the Kambojas, Kamuias being just the form we would expect in the dialect for an old Kambojika" (Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute); Cf: "Dr Stein Konow’s recognition of Kamuia, occurring in the Lion Capital Inscription of Mathura, as = Kambojika is convincing”…See: Bihar and Orissa Research Society, Vol XVI, 1930, part III and IV, p 229, Dr K. P. Jayswal; For more refs on Aiyasi Kamuia = Aiyasi Kamboja, see: Ancient Kamboja in Iran and Islam, p 69, Dr H. W. Bailey; Five Phases of Indian Art, 1991, p 17, K. D. Bajpai; Indological Studies: Prof. D.C. Sircar Commemoration Volume, 1987, p 106, Prof. D.C. Sircar Commemoration Volume, Upendra Thakur, Sachindra Kumar Maity - Social Science; Female Images in the Museums of Uttar Pradesh and Their Social Background, 1978, p 162, Padma Upadhyaya; Ṛtam, p 46, Akhila Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow; Literary History of Ancient Indiain Relation to its Racial, and Linguistic Affiliations, 1952, pp 46,165, Chandra Chakravarty; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - 1834, p 141, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; "Ancient Kamboja", in Iran and Islam, ed. by C. E. Bosworth, Edinburgh, 1971, pp. 66, Dr H. W. Bailey; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, pp 41, 227/228, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p90, Kirpal Singh Dardi.
  9. ^ Refs: Corpus Inscrioptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, pp xxxvi, 36, S Konow: "I shall only add that if Kharoshtha and his father Arta were Kambojas, the same may have been the case with Moga, and we understand why the Kambojas are sometimes mentioned with the Sakas and Yavanas" ( Dr S Konow); Ancient India, pp 320-21, Dr R. K. Mukerjee; Journal of Indian History - 1921, p viii, University of Kerala, University of Allahabad Department of Modern Indian History, University of Travancore; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 41, 306-09, Dr J. L. Kamboj; These Kamboj People, 1979, p 141; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 168-69, Kirpal Singh Dardi; India and the World, 1964, p 154, Dr Buddha Prakash; Balocistān: Siyāsī Kashmakash, Muz̤mirāt Va Rujḥānāt, 1989, p 2, Munīr Aḥmad Marrīتاريخ قوم كمبوه: جديد تحقيق كى روشنى ميں, 1996, p 221, Yusuf Husain. For Arta being considered brother of king Maues (See also: The Seleucid, Partha and Sassasina Periods, 1983, p 195, E Y Shater).
  10. ^ An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 418-452, Richard Salomon

External links[edit]

  • Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions [3]
  • The Early Kushan Kings: New Evidence for Chronology: Para (63) [4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, part I, Dr Stein Konow
  • Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research society, Vol XVI, 1930, parts III, IV, Dr K. P. Jayswal
  • Ancient India, 1956, Dr R. K. Mukerjee
  • Comprehensive History of India, 1957, Vol II, Dr K. A. Nilkantha Shastri
  • Ancient Kamboja People & Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  • Political History of ancient India, 1996, Dr H. C. raychaudhury
  • India and the World, 1964, Dr Buddha Parkash
  • India and Central Asia, 1929, Dr P. C. Bagchi
  • Sculptures of Mathura and Sarnath, 2002, Usha Rani Tiwari (br)
  • The Sakas in India, Dr S. Chattopadhyaya
  • The development of Kharoshthi Script, Dr C. C. Dasgupta
  • Hellenism in Ancient India, G. N. Bannerjee
  • Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society, Vol Xvi Parts III, IV, 1930
    .
  • An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman,Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), Richard Salomon