Artemisia (genus)

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Artemisia
Artemisia cina - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-165.jpg
Artemisia cina (Levant wormseed)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Artemisia
L., 1753
Type species
Artemisia vulgaris
L.
Species

See text

Synonyms

Absinthium Mill.
Chamartemisia Rydb.
Elachanthemum Y.Ling & Y.R.Ling
Oligosporus Cass.[1]

Artemisia /ˌɑrtɨˈmziə/[2] is a large, diverse genus of plants with between 200 and 400 species belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae. Common names for various species in the genus include mugwort, wormwood, and sagebrush. Artemisia comprises hardy herbaceous plants and shrubs, which are known for the powerful chemical constituents in their essential oils. Artemisia species grow in temperate climates of both hemispheres, usually in dry or semiarid habitats. Notable species include A. vulgaris (common mugwort), A. tridentata (big sagebrush), A. annua (sagewort), A. absinthum (wormwood), A. dracunculus (tarragon), and A. abrotanum (southernwood). The leaves of many species are covered with white hairs.

Most species have strong aromas and bitter tastes from terpenoids and sesquiterpene lactones, which discourage herbivory, and may have had a selective advantage.[3] The small flowers are wind-pollinated.[3] Artemisia species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species.

Some botanists split the genus into several genera, but DNA analysis[4] does not support the maintenance of the genera Crossostephium, Filifolium, Neopallasia, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria; three other segregate genera Stilnolepis, Elachanthemum, and Kaschgaria, are maintained by this evidence. Occasionally, some of the species are called sages, causing confusion with the Salvia sages in the family Lamiaceae.

Name[edit]

The name "artemisia" ultimately derives from the Greek goddess Artemis (Roman Diana), the namesake of Greek Queens Artemisia I and II.[5] A more specific reference may be to Artemisia II of Caria, a botanist and medical researcher who died in 350 BC.[6] [7]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

The aromatic leaves of some species are used for flavouring. Most species have an extremely bitter taste. A. dracunculus (tarragon) is widely used as a culinary herb, particularly important in French cuisine.

Artemisia absinthium (absinth wormwood) was used to repel fleas and moths, and in brewing (wormwood beer, wormwood wine). The aperitif vermouth (derived from the German word Wermut, "wormwood") is a wine flavored with aromatic herbs, but originally with wormwood. The highly potent spirits absinthe and Malört also contain wormwood.

Artemisia pycnocephala (beach sagewort) flowers
Artemisia californica (California sagebrush) leaves
Artemisia mauiensis (Maui wormwood)
Artemisia nilagirica (Indian wormwood)
Artemisia pontica (Roman wormwood)

Artemisia arborescens (tree wormwood, or sheeba in Arabic) is a very bitter herb indigenous to the Middle East used in tea, usually with mint.

A few species are grown as ornamental plants, the fine-textured ones used for clipped bordering. All grow best in free-draining sandy soil, unfertilized, and in full sun.

Artemesia stelleriana is known as Dusty Miller, but several other species bear that name, including Jacobaea maritima (syn. Senecio cineraria), Silene coronaria (syn. Lychnis coronaria), and Centaurea cineraria.

Medicinal[edit]

Artemisinin (from Artemisia annua) and derivatives are a group of compounds with the most rapid action of all current drugs used to treat malaria.[8] Treatments containing an artemisinin derivative (artemisinin-combination therapies) are now standard treatment worldwide for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum.

Culture[edit]

Artemisia has been mentioned and used in popular culture for centuries. A few examples are:

  • In Shakespeare's Hamlet, the titular character says "Wormwood, wormwood" to comment on the bitter implications of what the Player Queen has just said.

Selected species[edit]

Artemisia abrotanum L.southernwood, southern wormwood, slovenwood, abrotanum, old-man, lad's love
Artemisia absinthium L.grand wormwood, absinthium
Artemisia adamsii Besser
Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd.African wormwood, African sagebrush
Artemisia alaskana Rydb.Alaska wormwood
Artemisia alcockii Pamp.
Artemisia aleutica HulténAleutian wormwood
Artemisia amoena Poljakov
Artemisia annua L.annual wormwood, sweet sagewort, sweet Annie
Artemisia araxina Takht.
Artemisia arborescenstree wormwood
Artemisia arbuscula Nutt.little sagebrush, low Sagebrush, black sage
Artemisia arctica Less.boreal sagebrush
Artemisia arctisibirica Korobkov
Artemisia arenaria DC.
Artemisia arenicola Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia argentata Klokov
Artemisia argentea L'Hér.Madeira wormwood
Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & VaniotChinese mugwort
Artemisia argyrophylla Ledeb.
Artemisia armeniaca Lam.
Artemisia aschurbajewii C.G.Aro
Artemisia australis Less.ʻĀhinahina, Oʻahu wormwood[10]
Artemisia austriaca Jacq.
Artemisia avarica Minat.
Artemisia badhysi Krasch. & Lincz. ex Poljakov
Artemisia balchanorum Krasch.
Artemisia baldshuanica Krasch. & Zaprjag.
Artemisia bargusinensis Spreng.
Artemisia bejdemaniae Leonova
Artemisia biennis Willd.biennial sagewort, biennial wormwood
Artemisia bigelovii A.GrayBigelow sage, Bigelow sagebrush
Artemisia borealis Pall.
Artemisia borotalensis Poljakov
Artemisia bottnica Lundstr. ex Kindb.
Artemisia caespitosa Ledeb.
Artemisia californica Less.coastal sagebrush, California sagebrush
Artemisia camelorum Krasch.
Artemisia campestris L.field wormwood, sand wormwood
Artemisia camphorata Vill.
Artemisia cana Purshsilver sagebrush
Artemisia canadensis Michx.Canada wormwood
Artemisia capillaris Thunb.capillary wormwood, yin-chen wormwood
Artemisia carruthii Wood ex Carruth.Carruth sagewort, Carruth's sagebrush
Artemisia caruifolia Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.
Artemisia caucasica Willd.
Artemisia chamaemelifolia Vill.
Artemisia cina O.Berg & C.F.Schmidtsantonica, Levant wormseed
Artemisia ciniformis Krasch. & Popov ex Poljakov
Artemisia commutata Besser
Artemisia compacta Fisch. ex DC.
Artemisia cuspidata Krasch.
Artemisia czukavinae Filatova
Artemisia daghestanica Krasch. & Poretzky
Artemisia demissa Krasch.
Artemisia depauperata Krasch.
Artemisia deserti Krasch.
Artemisia desertorum Spreng.
Artemisia diffusa Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia dimoana Popov
Artemisia dolosa Krasch.
Artemisia douglasiana Bess.Douglas' mugwort, Douglas' sagewort, northwest mugwort
Artemisia dracunculus L.tarragon, silky wormwood
Artemisia dubia Wall.
Artemisia dubjanskyana Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia dumosa Poljakov
Artemisia elongata Filatova & Ladygina
Artemisia eremophila Krasch. & Butkov ex Poljakov
Artemisia eriantha Ten.
Artemisia feddei H.Lév. & Vaniot
Artemisia fedtschenkoana Krasch.
Artemisia ferganensis Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia filifolia Torr.sand sagebrush, sand-sage, silvery wormwood
Artemisia flava Jurtzev
Artemisia franserioides Greeneragweed sagebrush
Artemisia freyniana (Pamp.) Krasch.
Artemisia frigida Willd.fringed sagebrush, fringed-sage, prairie sagewort, estafiata
Artemisia fulvella Filatova & Ladygina
Artemisia furcata Bieb.forked wormwood
Artemisia galinae Ikonn.
Artemisia genipi Weber ex Stechm.
Artemisia glabella Kar. & Kir.
Artemisia glacialis L.glacier wormwood, alpine mugwort
Artemisia glanduligera Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia glauca Pall. ex Willd.
Artemisia glaucina Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia globosa Krasch.
Artemisia globularia Cham. ex Bess.purple wormwood
Artemisia glomerata Ledeb.cudweed sagewort, Pacific alpine wormwood
Artemisia gmelinii Webb ex StechmannGmelin's wormwood, Russian wormwood
Artemisia gnaphalodes Nutt.
Artemisia gorjaevii Poljakov
Artemisia gracilescens Krasch. & Iljin
Artemisia granatensis Boiss. ex DC.
Artemisia gurganica (Krasch.) Filatova
Artemisia gypsacea Krasch., Popov & Lincz. ex Poljakov
Artemisia halodendron Turcz. ex Besser
Artemisia halophila Krasch.
Artemisia heptapotamica Poljakov
Artemisia herba-alba Assowhite wormwood
Artemisia hippolyti Butkov
Artemisia hololeuca M.Bieb. ex Besser
Artemisia hulteniana Vorosch.
Artemisia incana (L.) Druce
Artemisia indica Willd.yomogi
Artemisia insulana Krasch.
Artemisia insularis Kitam.
Artemisia integrifolia L.
Artemisia issykkulensis Poljakov
Artemisia jacutica Drobow
Artemisia japonica Thunb.otoko yomogi
Artemisia juncea Kar. & Kir.
Artemisia karatavica Krasch. & Abolin ex Poljakov
Artemisia karavajevii Leonova
Artemisia kaschgarica Krasch.
Artemisia kauaiensis (Skottsberg) SkottsbergʻĀhinahina, Kauaʻi wormwood
Artemisia keiskeana Miq.
Artemisia kelleri Krasch.
Artemisia kemrudica Krasch.
Artemisia knorringiana Krasch.
Artemisia kochiiformis Krasch. & Lincz. ex Poljakov
Artemisia koidzumii Nakai
Artemisia kopetdaghensis Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia korovinii Poljakov
Artemisia korshinskyi Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia krushiana Bess.Krush's wormwood
Artemisia kulbadica Boiss. & Buhse
Artemisia kuschakewiczii C.G.A.Winkl.
Artemisia laciniata Willd.Siberian wormwood
Artemisia laciniatiformis Kom. Artemisia lactiflora Kom.white mugwort
Artemisia lagocephala (Besser) DC.
Artemisia lagopus Fisch. ex Besser
Artemisia lanata Willd.
Artemisia latifolia Ledeb.
Artemisia ledebouriana Besser
Artemisia lehmanniana Bunge
Artemisia leontopodioides Fisch. ex Besser
Artemisia lessingiana Besser
Artemisia leucodes Schrenk
Artemisia leucophylla (Turcz. ex Besser) Pamp.
Artemisia leucotricha Krasch. ex Ladygina
Artemisia lindleyana Bess.Columbia River wormwood
Artemisia lipskyi Poljakov
Artemisia littoricola Kitam.
Artemisia longifolia Nutt.longleaf sagebrush, longleaf wormwood
Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.gray sagewort, prairie sage, white sagebrush, Louisiana-sage, western-sage
Artemisia macilenta (Maxim.) Krasch.
Artemisia macrantha Ledeb.
Artemisia macrobotrys Ledeb.Yukon wormwood
Artemisia macrocephala Jacq. ex Besser
Artemisia macrorhiza Turcz.
Artemisia maracandica Bunge
Artemisia maritima L.sea wormwood, absinthe de mer
Artemisia marschalliana Spreng.
Artemisia martjanovii Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia mauiensis (A.Gray) SkottsbergʻĀhinahina, Maui wormwood
Artemisia maximovicziana Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia medioxima Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia messerschmidtiana Besser
Artemisia michauxiana Bess.Michaux sagebrush, Michaux's wormwood, lemon sagewort
Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Besser
Artemisia mogoltavica Poljakov
Artemisia mongolica (Besser) Fisch. ex Nakai
Artemisia mongolorum Krasch.
Artemisia montana (Nakai) Pamp.
Artemisia mucronulata Poljakov
Artemisia multisecta Leonova
Artemisia mutellina Vill.
Artemisia nachitschevanica Rzazade
Artemisia nakaii Pamp.
Artemisia namanganica Poljakov
Artemisia nana Gaudin
Artemisia negrei Ouyahya
Artemisia nesiotica Ravenisland sagebrush
Artemisia nigricans Filatova & Ladygina
Artemisia niitakayamensis Hayata
Artemisia nilagirica (C.B.Clarke) Pamp.
Artemisia nitida Bertol.
Artemisia nortonii Pamp.
Artemisia norvegica Fr.Norwegian mugwort, alpine sagewort
Artemisia nova A.Nels.black sagebrush, small sagebrush
Artemisia nuristanica Kitam.
Artemisia obscura Pamp.
Artemisia obtusa Rydb.
Artemisia obtusiloba Ledeb.
Artemisia occidentalisichuanensis Y.R.Ling & S.Y.Zhao
Artemisia occidentalisinensis Y.R.Ling
Artemisia oelandica (Besser) Krasch.
Artemisia olchonensis Leonova
Artemisia oliveriana J.Gay ex Besser
Artemisia ordosica Krasch.
Artemisia orientalixizangensis Y.R.Ling & Humphries
Artemisia orientaliyunnanensis Y.R.Ling
Artemisia orthobotrys Kitag.
Artemisia packardiae J.Grimes & ErtterPackard's wormwood, Succor Creek sagebrush
Artemisia pallasiana Fisch. ex Besser
Artemisia palmeri A.GraySan Diego sagewort
Artemisia palustris L.
Artemisia pannosa Krasch.
Artemisia papposa S.F.Blake & Cronq.Owyhee sage, Owyhee sagebrush
Artemisia parryi A.GrayParry's wormwood
Artemisia pattersonii A.GrayPatterson's wormwood
Artemisia pectinata Pall.
Artemisia pedatifida Nutt.birdfoot sagebrush, matted sagewort
Artemisia pedemontana Balb.
Artemisia persica Boiss.
Artemisia pewzowii C.G.A.Winkl.
Artemisia phaeolepis Krasch.
Artemisia polysticha Poljakov
Artemisia pontica L.Roman wormwood, green-ginger
Artemisia porrecta Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia porteri Cronq.Porter's wormwood, Porter mugwort
Artemisia prasina Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia princeps Pamp.Japanese mugwort, yomogi
Artemisia proceriformis Krasch.
Artemisia prolixa Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia punctigera Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia purshiana Besser
Artemisia pycnocephala (Less.) DC.beach wormwood, coastal sagewort
Artemisia pycnorhiza Ledeb.
Artemisia pygmaea A.Graypygmy sagebrush
Artemisia quinqueloba Trautv.
Artemisia remotiloba Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia rhodantha Rupr.
Artemisia rigida (Nutt.) A.Grayscabland sagebrush
Artemisia rothrockii A.Graytimberline sagebrush
Artemisia roxburghiana Wall. ex Besser
Artemisia rubripes Nakai
Artemisia rupestris L.rock wormwood
Artemisia rutifolia Stephan ex Spreng.
Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb. ex Hook.f.
Artemisia saissanica (Krasch.) Filatova
Artemisia saitoana Kitam.
Artemisia salsoloides Willd.
Artemisia samoiedorum Pamp.
Artemisia santolina Schrenk
Artemisia santolinifolia Turcz. ex Besser
Artemisia santonica L.
Artemisia saposhnikovii Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia schischkinii Krasch.
Artemisia schmidtianaangel's hair
Artemisia schrenkiana Ledeb.
Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit.redstem wormwood, yin-chen wormwood
Artemisia scopiformis Ledeb.
Artemisia scopulorum A.Grayalpine sagebrush, dwarf sagebrush
Artemisia scotina Nevski
Artemisia senjavinensis Bess.arctic wormwood
Artemisia semiarida (Krasch. & Lavrenko) Filatova
Artemisia senjavinensis Besser
Artemisia sericea Weber ex Stechm.
Artemisia serotina Bunge
Artemisia serrata Nutt.sawtooth wormwood
Artemisia sieversiana Willd.sieversian wormwood
Artemisia skorniakowii C.G.A.Winkl.
Artemisia sogdiana Bunge
Artemisia songarica Schrenk
Artemisia spicigera K.Koch
Artemisia spinescens D.C.Eaton–budsage
   [syn. Picrothamnus desertorum]

Artemisia splendens Willd.
Artemisia stelleriana Bess.hoary mugwort, oldwoman, Dusty Miller, beach wormwood
Artemisia stenocephala Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia stenophylla Kitam.
Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Kom.
Artemisia subarctica Krasch.
Artemisia subchrysolepis Filatova
Artemisia sublessingiana Krasch. ex Poljakov
Artemisia subsalsa Filatova
Artemisia subviscosa Turcz. ex Besser
Artemisia succulenta Ledeb.
Artemisia suksdorfii Pipercoastal wormwood, Suksdorf sagewort
Artemisia sylvatica Maxim.
Artemisia szowitziana (Besser) Grossh.
Artemisia tanacetifolia L.
Artemisia taurica Willd.Tauric wormwood
Artemisia tenuisecta Nevski
Artemisia terrae-albae Krasch.
Artemisia tianschanica Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia tilesii Ledeb.Tilesius' wormwood, Aleutian mugwort
Artemisia tomentella Trautv.
Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb.
Artemisia transbaicalensis Leonova
Artemisia transiliensis Poljakov
Artemisia trautvetteriana Besser
Artemisia tridentata Nutt.big sagebrush, blue sage, black sage, basin sagebrush, common sagebrush
Artemisia triniana Besser
Artemisia tripartita Rydb.threetip sagebrush
Artemisia turanica Krasch.
Artemisia turcomanica Gand.
Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.Alps wormwood, alpine wormwood
Artemisia unalaskensis Rydb.
Artemisia underwoodii Rydb.
Artemisia uralensis Spreng. ex Besser
Artemisia uraorum Hultén
Artemisia uzbekistanica Poljakov
Artemisia vachanica Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia valida Krasch. ex Poljak.
Artemisia verlotiorum LamotteChinese wormwood
Artemisia viridis Willd.
Artemisia vulgaris L.mugwort, felonherb, green-ginger, common wormwood
Artemisia wallichiana Besser
Artemisia waltonii J.R.Drumm. ex Pamp.
Artemisia wudanica Liou & W.Wang
Artemisia wulingshanensis Bar. & Skv. ex Liou
Artemisia wurzellii C.M.James & Stace
Artemisia xerophila Magnier
Artemisia xerophytica Krasch.
Artemisia xylorhiza Krasch. ex Filatova
Artemisia yadongensis Ling & Y.R.Ling
Artemisia yongii Y.R.Ling
Artemisia younghusbandii J.R.Drumm. ex Pamp.
Artemisia zayuensis Y.R.Ling
Artemisia zhaodongensis G.Y.Chang & M.Y.Liou
Artemisia zhongdianensis Y.R.Ling
Artemisia zollingeriana Sch.Bip.[11]

Formerly placed here[edit]

Classification[edit]

Classification of Artemisia is difficult.[3] Divisions of Artemisia prior to 2000 into subgenera or sections have not been backed up by molecular data,[4] but much of the molecular data, as of 2006, are not especially strong.[3] The following identified groups do not include all the species in the genus.

Section Tridentatae[edit]

Section Tridentatae consists of nine to eleven species of shrubs, which are very prominent parts of the flora in western North America.[13] In some classifications, they are part of the genus or subgenus Seriphidium, although they do not seem to be closely related to the Asian Seriphidium species.[4] To be monophyletic, section Tridentatae should exclude Artemisia bigelovii and Artemisia palmeri.[4][13]

Section Tridentatae includes above species with exception of Artemisia longiloba, which is treated as a subspecies of Artemisia arbuscula. Section Nebulae includes Artemisia californica, Artemisia nesiotica, and Artemisia filifolia.[14]

Old World Seriphidium[edit]

The Old World species which different classifications put into the genus or subgenus Seriphidium consist of about 125 species native to Europe and temperate Asia, with the largest number of species in Central Asia.[15] Some classifications, such as that of the Flora of North America, exclude any New World plants from Seriphidium.[3] They are herbaceous plants or small shrubs.[15]

Subgenus Dracunculus[edit]

One group which is well-supported by molecular data is subgenus Dracunculus. It consists of 80 species found in both North America and Eurasia,[3] of which the best-known is perhaps Artemisia dracunculus, the spice tarragon.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus: Artemisia L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-13. Retrieved 2011-02-14. 
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ a b c d e f "119. Artemisia Linnaeus". Flora of North America. 2006. 
  4. ^ a b c d Watson, L. E., et al. (2002). "Molecular phylogeny of subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera". BMC Evolutionary Biology 2: 17. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-2-17. 
  5. ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 6th ed. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3804. ISBN 0199206872. 
  6. ^ "Etymology". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-06-07. 
  7. ^ Various (2014 Jul). "Etymologia: Artemisinin". Emerg Infect Dis [Internet] (CDC) 20 (7). doi:10.3201/eid2007.ET2007. Retrieved July 4, 2014. 
  8. ^ White, N. J. (July 1997). "Assessment of the pharmacodynamic properties of antimalarial drugs in vivo". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41 (7): 1413–22. PMC 163932. PMID 9210658. 
  9. ^ Musselman, L. J. (12 April 2007). "Wormwood". Plant Site: Bible Plants. Old Dominion University. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
  10. ^ "Artemisia australis". Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  11. ^ "Artemisia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-02-14. 
  12. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Artemisia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-02-14. 
  13. ^ a b Kornkven, A. B., et al. (1998). "Phylogenetic analysis of Artemisia section Tridentatae (Asteraceae) based on sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA". American Journal of Botany 85 (12): 1787. doi:10.2307/2446513. JSTOR 2446513. 
  14. ^ Shultz, L. M. (2009). "Revision of Artemisia subgenus Tridentatae". Systematic Botany Monographs 89: 1–131. 
  15. ^ a b "22. Seriphidium (Besser ex Hook.) Fourr.". Flora of Pakistan. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]