Artery

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Arteries)
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation).
Artery
Arterial System en.svg
The human main arteries, part of the circulatory system.
Latin Arteria (plural: arteriae)

Arteries (from Greek ἀρτηρία (artēria), meaning "windpipe, artery")[1] are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. While most arteries carry oxygenated blood, there are two exceptions to this norm, the pulmonary and the umbilical arteries. The effective arterial blood volume (EABV) is that extracellular fluid (ECF) which fills the arterial system.

The circulatory system is vital for sustaining life. Its normal functioning is responsible for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all cells, as well as the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products, the maintenance of optimum pH, and the circulation of proteins and cells of the immune system. In developed countries, the two leading causes of death, myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke, may each directly result from an arterial system that has been slowly and progressively compromised by years of deterioration. (See atherosclerosis).

Description[edit]

The arterial system is the higher-pressure portion of the circulatory system. Arterial pressure varies between the peak pressure during heart contraction, called the systolic pressure, and the minimum, or diastolic pressure between contractions, when the heart expands and refills. This pressure variation within the artery produces the pulse which is observable in any artery, and reflects heart activity. Arteries also aid the heart in pumping blood. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the tissues, except for pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to the lungs for oxygenation.(Veins carry deoxygenated blood to the heart.)[2]

Anatomy[edit]

See also: Arterial tree
Diagram of an artery.
Diagram of an artery.

The anatomy of arteries can be separerated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microscopic anatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope.

Anatomy[edit]

The arterial system of the human body is divided into systemic arteries, carrying blood from the heart to the whole body, and pulmonary arteries, carrying deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.

Systemic arteries[edit]

Systemic arteries are the arteries (including the peripheral arteries), of the systemic circulation, which is the part of the cardiovascular system that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

Pulmonary arteries[edit]

Pulmonary arteries are the arteries of the pulmonary circulation, which is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart.

Microscopic anatomy[edit]

The outermost layer is known as the tunica externa also known as tunica adventitia and is composed of connective tissue made up of collagen fibers. Inside this layer is the tunica media, or media, which is made up of smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue (also called connective tissue proper). The innermost layer, which is in direct contact with the flow of blood is the tunica intima, commonly called the intima. This layer is made up of mainly endothelial cells. The hollow internal cavity in which the blood flows is called the lumen.

Anatomy of the arterial wall

Types of arteries[edit]

Pulmonary arteries[edit]

The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood that has just returned from the body to the heart towards the lungs, where carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen.

Systemic arteries[edit]

Systemic arteries can be subdivided into two types - muscular and elastic - according to the relative compositions of elastic and muscle tissue in their tunica media as well as their size and the makeup of the internal and external elastic lamina. The larger arteries (>10mm diameter) are generally elastic and the smaller ones (0.1-10mm) tend to be muscular. Systemic arteries deliver blood to the arterioles, and then to the capillaries, where nutrients and gases are exchanged.

Aorta[edit]

The aorta is the root systemic artery. It receives blood directly from the left ventricle of the heart via the aortic valve. As the aorta branches, and these arteries branch in turn, they become successively smaller in diameter, down to the arteriole. The arterioles supply capillaries which in turn empty into venules. The very first branches off of the aorta are the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle itself. These are followed by the branches off the aortic arch, namely the brachiocephalic artery, the left common carotid and the left subclavian arteries.

Arterioles[edit]

Arterioles, the smallest of the true arteries, help in regulating blood pressure by the variable contraction of the smooth muscle of their walls, and deliver blood to the capillaries.

Arterioles and blood pressure[edit]

Arterioles have the greatest collective influence on both local blood flow and on overall blood pressure. They are the primary "adjustable nozzles" in the blood system, across which the greatest pressure drop occurs. The combination of heart output (cardiac output) and systemic vascular resistance, which refers to the collective resistance of all of the body's arterioles, are the principal determinants of arterial blood pressure at any given moment.

Capillaries[edit]

Main article: Capillaries

The capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels and are part of the microcirculation. The capillaries have a width of a single cell in diameter to aid in the fast and easy diffusion of gases, sugars and nutrients to surrounding tissues.

Functions of capillaries[edit]

Capillaries have no smooth muscle surrounding them and have a diameter less than that of red blood cells; a red blood cell is typically 7 micrometers outside diameter, capillaries typically 5 micrometers inside diameter. The red blood cells must distort in order to pass through the capillaries.

These small diameters of the capillaries provide a relatively large surface area for the exchange of gases and nutrients.

What capillaries do[edit]

  • In the lungs, carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen
  • In the tissues, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged
  • In the kidneys, wastes are released to be eliminated from the body
  • In the intestine, nutrients are picked up, and wastes released

Embryonic development[edit]

Arterial formation begins, when endothelial cells begin to express arterial specific genes, such as Ephrin B2.[3]

Pathology[edit]

The condition of the arteries can give rise to a number of pathological conditions.

Blood pressure[edit]

Systemic arterial pressures, are generated by the forceful contractions of the heart's left ventricle. (See blood pressure)

Healthy resting arterial pressures, are relatively low, mean systemic pressures typically being under 100 mmHg, about 1.8 lbf/in², above surrounding atmospheric pressure (about 760 mmHg or 14.7 lbf/in² at sea level).

To withstand and adapt to the pressures within, arteries are surrounded by varying thicknesses of smooth muscle which have extensive elastic and inelastic connective tissues.

The pulse pressure, i.e. systolic vs. diastolic difference, is determined primarily by the amount of blood ejected by each heart beat, stroke volume, versus the volume and elasticity of the major arteries.

Over time, factors such as elevated arterial blood sugar (see Diabetes Mellitus), lipoprotein, cholesterol, high blood pressure, stress and smoking, are all implicated in damaging both the endothelium and walls of the arteries, resulting in atherosclerosis.

Atheroma[edit]

An atheroma or plaque in the artery wall is a build-up of cell debris, that contain lipids, (cholesterol and fatty acids), calcium[4][5] and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue.

Density-Dependent Colour Scanning Electron Micrograph SEM (DDC-SEM) of cardiovascular calcification, showing in orange calcium phosphate spherical particles (denser material) and, in green, the extracellular matrix (less dense material).[4]

History[edit]

Among the ancient Greeks, the arteries were considered to be "air holders" that were responsible for the transport of air to the tissues and were connected to the trachea. This was as a result of finding the arteries of the dead devoid of blood.

In medieval times, it was recognized that arteries carried a fluid, called "spiritual blood" or "vital spirits", considered to be different from the contents of the veins. This theory went back to Galen. In the late medieval period, the trachea,[6] and ligaments were also called "arteries".[7]

William Harvey described and popularized the modern concept of the circulatory system and the roles of arteries and veins in the 17th century.

Alexis Carrel at the beginning of 20th century first described the technique for vascular suturing and anastomosis and successfully performed many organ transplantations in animals; he thus actually opened the way to modern vascular surgery that was before limited to vessels permanent ligatation.

Theodor Kocher the Swiss researcher, reported that atherosclerosis often developed in patients who had undergone a thyroidectomy and suggested that hypothyroidism favors atherosclerosis, which was, in the 1900s at autopsies, seen more frequently in iodine-deficient Austrians compared to Icelanders, which are not deficient in iodine. Turner reported the effectiveness of iodide and dried extracts of thyroid in the prevention of atherosclerosis in laboratory rabbits.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Additional images[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ἀρτηρία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  2. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins; Charles William McLaughlin; Susan Johnson; Maryanna Quon Warner; David LaHart; Jill D. Wright (1999). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 
  3. ^ Swift, MR; Weinstein, BM (Mar 13, 2009). "Arterial-venous specification during development.". Circulation research 104 (5): 576–88. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.108.188805. PMID 19286613. 
  4. ^ a b Bertazzo, S. et al. Nano-analytical electron microscopy reveals fundamental insights into human cardiovascular tissue calcification. Nature Materials 12, 576-583 (2013).
  5. ^ Miller, J. D. Cardiovascular calcification: Orbicular origins. Nature Materials 12, 476-478 (2013).
  6. ^ Oxford English Dictionary.
  7. ^ Shakespeare, William. Hamlet Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays from Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martins Press, 1994. pg. 50.

External links[edit]