- See Great Artesian Basin for the water source in Australia.
An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing groundwater under positive pressure. This causes the water level in a well to rise to a point where hydrostatic equilibrium has been reached. This type of well is called an artesian well. Water may even reach the ground surface if the natural pressure is high enough, in which case the well is called a flowing artesian well.
An aquifer is a geologic layer of porous and permeable material such as sand and gravel, limestone, or sandstone, through which water flows and is stored. An artesian aquifer is confined between impermeable rocks or clay which causes this positive pressure. The recharging of aquifers happens when the water table at its recharge zone is at a higher elevation than the head of the well.
Examples of artesian wells
- Ardoise, Nova Scotia
- Armstrong, British Columbia used by SweetWater Springs Bottled Water
- Arnes, Manitoba
- Brockton, Ontario the current source of Walkerton's water, following the Walkerton Tragedy.
- Burk's Falls, Ontario
- Creemore, Ontario used by Creemore Springs Brewery
- Gimli, Manitoba
- Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan
- Oak Hammock Marsh, Manitoba
- Pemberton, British Columbia
- Pisquid, Prince Edward Island
- Stratford, Ontario
- Teeswater, Ontario
- Tiny, Ontario
- Wasaga Beach, Ontario
- Watershed Park, British Columbia
- Weymouth, Nova Scotia
- White Rock, British Columbia
Some towns in the United States were named Artesia after the artesian wells in the vicinity. Other artesian well sites include:
- Ashland, Wisconsin
- Beaver Creek Park, Hill County, Havre, Montana
- Bishop, California
- Black Belt (region), Alabama
- Boiling Springs, Pennsylvania
- Brown Palace Hotel, Denver, Colorado
- Camp Lewis, New Jersey
- Carmel, Indiana
- Chatawa, Mississippi (capped March, 2012)
- Chestertown, New York
- Dallas, Oregon
- Doe Run, Missouri
- Eden Prairie, Minnesota
- Evamor, Goodbee, Louisiana
- Fountain Point, Michigan
- Fountain Valley, California
- Gage, Oklahoma
- Gillis Springs, Treutlen County, Georgia
- Great Salt Plains, Jet, Oklahoma
- Harborcreek Township, Pennsylvania
- Hardin County, Ohio
- Hicksville, Ohio
- Holly Springs, North Carolina
- Jacob's Well, Wimberley, Texas
- Jerome, Missouri
- Kentwood, Louisiana
- La Crosse, Wisconsin
- Las Vegas, Nevada
- Lexington, Kentucky
- Lisle, New York
- Lynnwood, Washington
- Martinsville, Indiana
- Memphis, Tennessee
- Montrose, Pennsylvania
- Monument Valley, Utah
- Olympia, Washington
- Onekama, Michigan
- Pahrump, Nevada
- Palm Springs, California
- Pisgah, Arkansas
- Potomac, Illinois
- Prattville, Alabama
- Sandwich, Massachusetts
- Salt Lake City, Utah
- Sierra Madre, California
- Silver Springs, Florida, site of one of the largest artesian spring formations in the world
- Sitka, Alaska
- Smoke Hole Caverns, Seneca Rocks, West Virginia
- South Dakota (most of the area east of the Missouri River)
- Stony Brook, New York
- Telfair County, Georgia (at least 50 wells)
- Warm Mineral Springs, Florida, this artesian well was considered the Fountain of Youth that explorer Juan Ponce de Leon had sought in the 1500's
- Washburn, Wisconsin
- Watervliet Michigan
- Williamstown, Massachusetts
- Woodward, Oklahoma
- St. Jana. Jana bottled artesian water.
- Grenelle Well in Paris (opened in 1841) which was almost 600 m deep.
- Passy Well, France (opened in 1860)
- Aquileia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
- Kopanj, Radenci Plain
- Cella, Teruel, Aragón
- The Great Artesian Basin is the largest and deepest artesian basin in the world, covering 23% of the Australian continent.
- Christchurch City Aquifer Prior to the earthquake of 2011 this was the source of one of the highest quality water supplies of a city in the world.
- Stampriet Stampriet Basin
- Frances Gies and Joseph Gies, Cathedral, Forge, and Waterwheel subtitled "Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages". Harper Perennial, 1995 ISBN 0-06-016590-1, page 112.
- Fishman, Charles (19 Dec 2007). "Message in a Bottle". Fast Company. "Fiji Water is the product of these villages, a South Pacific aquifer, and a state-of-the-art bottling plant in a part of Fiji even the locals consider remote. The plant, on the northeast coast of Fiji's main island of Viti Levu,..."
- "Artisan(sic) Water". Fiji Water. unknown. Retrieved 12 Dec 2011.