Arthur Balfour

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"Lord Balfour" redirects here. For the extant title in the Peerage of Scotland, see Lord Balfour of Burleigh. For the extinct title in the Peerage of Ireland, see Baron Balfour of Glenawley. For the extant title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, see Earl of Balfour.
For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale.
The Right Honourable
The Earl of Balfour
KG OM PC DL
Gws balfour 02.jpg
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
11 July 1902 – 5 December 1905
Monarch Edward VII
Preceded by The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Lord President of the Council
In office
27 April 1925 – 4 June 1929
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Succeeded by The Lord Parmoor
In office
23 October 1919 – 19 October 1922
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by The Earl Curzon of Kedleston
Succeeded by The 4th Marquess of Salisbury
Foreign Secretary
In office
10 December 1916 – 23 October 1919
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by The Viscount Grey of Fallodon
Succeeded by The Earl Curzon of Kedleston
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
25 May 1915 – 10 December 1916
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
David Lloyd George
Preceded by Winston Churchill
Succeeded by Sir Edward Carson
Leader of the Opposition
In office
27 February 1906 – 13 November 1911
Monarch Edward VII
George V
Prime Minister Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Succeeded by Andrew Bonar Law
In office
5 December 1905 – 8 February 1906
Monarch Edward VII
Prime Minister Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Preceded by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Lord Privy Seal
In office
11 July 1902 – 17 October 1903
Preceded by The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded by The 4th Marquess of Salisbury
Leader of the Conservative Party
In office
11 July 1902 – 13 November 1911
Preceded by The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded by Andrew Bonar Law
Personal details
Born Arthur James Balfour
(1848-07-25)25 July 1848
Whittingehame House, East Lothian, Scotland
Died 19 March 1930(1930-03-19) (aged 81)
Woking, Surrey, England
Resting place Whittingehame Church, Whittingehame
Citizenship British
Nationality Scottish
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s) None
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge
Occupation Politician
Statesman
Religion Church of England and
Church of Scotland
Signature Cursive signature in ink

Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC, DL (UK: /ˈbalfə/;[1] 25 July 1848 – 19 March 1930) was a British Conservative politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from July 1902 to December 1905. When he came into his inheritance at 21, Balfour became one of the wealthiest young men in Britain. He rose to prominence by suppressing agrarian unrest in Ireland through punitive action combined with measures against absentee landlords. In July 1902 he succeeded his uncle, Lord Salisbury as Prime Minister and leader of a Conservative Party leader that had won two successive landslide majorities, but suffered by virtue of public antipathy to the Boer war. Boer farms on the veldt supplying the guerrillas had been countered by British use of black South Africans as armed scouts, and many were reluctant to go back to mine work at the war's end. Balfour authorised the importation of Chinese labour under conditions that were criticised as slavery.

Balfour was seen as an ambivalent personality and a weak Prime Minister. His embrace of the imperial preference championed by Joseph Chamberlain was nuanced, but brought resignations and the end of his spell as party leader. He opposed Irish Home Rule, saying there could be no half-way house between Ireland remaining within the United Kingdom or becoming independent. He oversaw the Entente Cordiale, an agreement with France that influenced Britain's decision to join the First World War. In 1915 he became Foreign Secretary in David Lloyd George's wartime administration, but was frequently left out of the inner workings of government, although the declaration of 1917 promising Jews a "national home" in Palestine bore his name. He resigned as Foreign Secretary following the Versailles Conference in 1919, dying 19 March 1930 aged 81, having spent an inherited fortune. He never married.

Balfour trained as a philosopher – he originated an argument against believing that human reason could determine truth – and had a detached attitude to life, epitomised by a remark attributed to him: "Nothing matters very much and few things matter at all".

Background and early career[edit]

Balfour early in his career.
Whittingham House

Arthur Balfour was born at Whittingehame House, East Lothian, Scotland, the eldest son of James Maitland Balfour (1820–1856) and Lady Blanche Gascoyne-Cecil (1825–1872). His father was a Scottish MP, as was his grandfather James; his mother, a member of the Cecil family descended from Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, was the daughter of the 2nd Marquess of Salisbury and a sister to the 3rd Marquess, the future Prime Minister. His godfather was the Duke of Wellington, after whom he was named.[2] He was the eldest son, third of eight children, and had four brothers and three sisters. Arthur Balfour was educated at Grange preparatory school in Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire (1859–1861), and Eton (1861–1866), where he studied with the influential master, William Johnson Cory. He went to the University of Cambridge, where he read moral sciences at Trinity College (1866–1869),[3] graduating with a second-class honours degree. His younger brother was the Cambridge embryologist Francis Maitland Balfour (1851–1882).

Although he coined the saying "Nothing matters very much and few things matter at all", Balfour was distraught at the early death from typhus in 1875 of his cousin May Lyttelton, whom he had hoped to marry: later, mediums claimed to pass on messages from her – see the "Palm Sunday Case".[4][5] Balfour remained a bachelor. Margot Tennant (later Margot Asquith) wished to marry him, but Balfour said: "No, that is not so. I rather think of having a career of my own."[2] His household was maintained by his unmarried sister, Alice. In middle age, Balfour had a 40-year friendship with Mary Charteris (née Wyndham), Lady Elcho, later Countess of Wemyss and March.[6] Although one biographer writes that "it is difficult to say how far the relationship went", her letters suggest they may have become lovers in 1887 and may have engaged in sado-masochism,[7] a claim echoed by A. N. Wilson.[4] Another biographer believes they had "no direct physical relationship", although he dismisses as unlikely suggestions that Balfour was homosexual, or, in view of a time during the Boer War when he replied to a message while drying himself after his bath, Lord Beaverbrook's claim that he was "a hermaphrodite" whom no-one saw naked.[8]

In 1874 he was elected Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Hertford until 1885. In spring 1878, Balfour became Private Secretary to his uncle, Lord Salisbury. He accompanied Salisbury (then Foreign Secretary) to the Congress of Berlin and gained his first experience in international politics in connection with the settlement of the Russo-Turkish conflict. At the same time he became known in the world of letters; the academic subtlety and literary achievement of his Defence of Philosophic Doubt (1879) suggested he might make a reputation as a philosopher.

Balfour divided his time between politics and academic pursuits. Released from his duties as private secretary by the general election of 1880, he began to take more part in parliamentary affairs. He was for a time politically associated with Lord Randolph Churchill, Sir Henry Drummond Wolff and John Gorst. This quartet became known as the "Fourth Party" and gained notoriety for leader Lord Randolph Churchill's free criticism of Sir Stafford Northcote, Lord Cross and other prominent members of the "old gang".

Service in Lord Salisbury's governments[edit]

Balfour photo by George Grantham Bain

In 1885, Lord Salisbury appointed Balfour President of the Local Government Board; the following year he became Secretary for Scotland with a seat in the cabinet. These offices, while offering few opportunities for distinction, were an apprenticeship. In early 1887, Sir Michael Hicks Beach, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, resigned because of illness and Salisbury appointed his nephew in his place. That surprised the political world and possibly led to the British phrase "Bob's your uncle!". Balfour surprised critics by ruthless enforcement of the Crimes Act, earning the nickname "Bloody Balfour". His steady administration did much to dispel his reputation as a political lightweight.

In Parliament he resisted overtures to the Irish Parliamentary Party on Home Rule, and, allied with Joseph Chamberlain's Liberal Unionists, encouraged Unionist activism in Ireland. Balfour also helped the poor by creating the Congested Districts Board for Ireland in 1890. In 1886–1892 he became one of the most effective public speakers of the age. Impressive in matter rather than delivery, his speeches were logical and convincing, and delighted an ever wider audience.

On the death of W.H. Smith in 1891, Balfour became First Lord of the Treasury – the last in British history not to have been concurrently Prime Minister as well – and Leader of the House of Commons. After the fall of the government in 1892 he spent three years in opposition. When the Conservatives returned to power, in coalition with the Liberal Unionists, in 1895, Balfour again became Leader of the House and First Lord of the Treasury. His management of the abortive education proposals of 1896 showed a disinclination for the drudgery of parliamentary management, yet he saw the passage of a bill providing Ireland with improved local government and joined in debates on foreign and domestic questions between 1895 to 1900.

During the illness of Lord Salisbury in 1898, and again in Salisbury's absence abroad, Balfour was in charge of the Foreign Office, and he conducted negotiations with Russia on the question of railways in North China. As a member of the cabinet responsible for the Transvaal negotiations in 1899, he bore his share of controversy and, when the war began disastrously, he was first to realise the need to use the country's full military strength. His leadership of the House was marked by firmness in the suppression of obstruction, yet there was a slight revival of the criticisms of 1896.

Prime Minister[edit]

Portrait of Arthur Balfour (1892)

On Lord Salisbury's resignation on 11 July 1902, Balfour succeeded him as Prime Minister, with the approval of all the Unionist party. The new Prime Minister came into power practically at the same moment as the coronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra and the end of the South African War. The Liberal party was still disorganised over the Boers. The two chief items of the ministerial parliamentary programme were the extension of the new Education Act to London and the Irish Land Purchase Act, by which the British exchequer would advance the money for tenants in Ireland to buy land. An achievement of Balfour's government was establishment of the Committee on Imperial Defence.

In foreign affairs, Balfour and his Foreign Secretary, Lord Lansdowne, improved relations with France, culminating in the Entente cordiale of 1904. The period also saw the Russo-Japanese War, when Britain, an ally of the Japanese, came close to war with Russia after the Dogger Bank incident. On the whole, Balfour left the conduct of foreign policy to Lansdowne, being busy himself with domestic problems.

Balfour distrusted the American concept of equality. During negotiations over creation of the League of Nations, the topic of "all men being created equal" came up in the context of the American Declaration of Independence. Speaking to Col. Edward M. House an aide to President Woodrow Wilson and David Hunter Miller, chief legal adviser to the US Commission, Balfour said "that was an 19th century proposition that he didn't believe was true. He believed that it was true that in a sense all men in a particular nation were created equal, but not that a man in Central Africa was created equal to a European."[9]

The budget was certain to show a surplus and taxation could be remitted. Yet as events proved, it was the budget that would sow dissension, override other legislative concerns and signal a new political movement. Charles Thomson Ritchie's remission of the shilling import-duty on corn led to Joseph Chamberlain's crusade in favour of tariff reform. These were taxes on imported goods with trade preference given to the Empire, to protect British industry from competition, strengthen the Empire in the face of growing German and American economic power, and provide revenue, other than raising taxes, for the social welfare legislation. As the session proceeded, the rift grew in the Unionist ranks. Tariff reform was popular with Unionist supporters, but the threat of higher prices for food imports made the policy an electoral albatross. Hoping to split the difference between the free traders and tariff reformers in his cabinet and party, Balfour favoured retaliatory tariffs to punish others who had tariffs against the British, in the hope of encouraging global free trade.

This was not sufficient for either the free traders or the extreme tariff reformers in government. With Balfour's agreement, Chamberlain resigned from the Cabinet in late 1903 to campaign for tariff reform. At the same time, Balfour tried to balance the two factions by accepting the resignation of three free-trading ministers, including Chancellor Ritchie, but the almost simultaneous resignation of the free-trader Duke of Devonshire (who as Lord Hartington had been the Liberal Unionist leader of the 1880s) left Balfour's Cabinet weak. By 1905 few Unionist MPs were still free traders (Winston Churchill crossed to the Liberals in 1904 when threatened with deselection at Oldham), but Balfour's act had drained his authority within the government.

Balfour resigned as Prime Minister in December 1905, hoping the Liberal leader Campbell-Bannerman would be unable to form a strong government. This was dashed when Campbell-Bannerman faced down an attempt ("The Relugas Compact") to "kick him upstairs" to the House of Lords. The Conservatives were defeated by the Liberals at the general election the following January (in terms of MPs, a Liberal landslide), with Balfour losing his seat at Manchester East to Thomas Gardner Horridge, a solicitor and king's counsel. Only 157 Conservatives were returned to the Commons, at least two-thirds followers of Chamberlain, who chaired the Conservative MPs until Balfour won a safe seat in the City of London.

Arthur Balfour's Government, July 1902 – December 1905[edit]

Arthur Balfour painted by Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Changes

Later career[edit]

An older Balfour
Balfour caricatured by XIT for Vanity Fair, 1910

After the disaster of 1906 Balfour remained party leader, his position strengthened by Joseph Chamberlain's leaving politics after his stroke in July 1906, but he was unable to make much headway against the huge Liberal majority in the Commons. An early attempt to score a debating triumph over the government, made in Balfour's usual abstruse, theoretical style, saw Campbell-Bannerman respond with: "Enough of this foolery," to the delight of his supporters. Balfour made the controversial decision, with Lord Lansdowne, to use the heavily Unionist House of Lords as a check on the political programme and legislation of the Liberal party in the Commons. Legislation was vetoed or altered by amendments between 1906 and 1909, leading David Lloyd George to remark that the Lords had become "not the watchdog of the Constitution, but Mr. Balfour's poodle." The issue was forced by the Liberals with Lloyd George's People's Budget, provoking the constitutional crisis that led to the Parliament Act 1911, which limited the Lords to delaying bills for up to two years. After the Unionists lost the general elections of 1910 (despite softening the tariff reform policy with Balfour's promise of a referendum on food taxes), the Unionist peers split to allow the Parliament Act to pass the House of Lords, to prevent mass creation of Liberal peers by the new King, George V. The exhausted Balfour resigned as party leader after the crisis, and was succeeded in late 1911 by Andrew Bonar Law.

Balfour remained important in the party, however, and when the Unionists joined Asquith's coalition government in May 1915, Balfour succeeded Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty. When Asquith's government collapsed in December 1916, Balfour, who seemed a potential successor to the premiership, became Foreign Secretary in Lloyd George's new administration, but not in the small War Cabinet, and was frequently left out of inner workings of government. Balfour's service as Foreign Secretary was notable for the Balfour Declaration of 1917, a letter to Lord Rothschild promising the Jews a "national home" in Palestine, then part of the Ottoman Empire.

Balfour resigned as Foreign Secretary following the Versailles Conference in 1919, but continued in the government (and the Cabinet after normal peacetime political arrangements resumed) as Lord President of the Council. In 1921–22 he represented the British Empire at the Washington Naval Conference and during summer 1922 stood in for the Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon, who was ill. He put proposed for an international settlement of war debts and reparations, called the Balfour Note, but met an unfavourable response.

In 1922 he, with most of the Conservative leadership, resigned with Lloyd George's government following the Conservative back-bench revolt against continuance of the coalition. Bonar Law became Prime Minister. In 1922 Balfour was created Earl of Balfour. Like many Coalition leaders, he did not hold office in the Conservative governments of 1922–4, although as an elder statesman he was consulted by the King in the choice of Baldwin as Bonar Law's successor as Conservative leader in May 1923. When asked whether "dear George" (the much more experienced Lord Curzon) would be chosen he replied, referring to Curzon's wealthy wife Grace, "No, dear, George will not but he will still have the means of Grace."

Balfour was not initially included in Stanley Baldwin's second government in 1924, but in 1925 he returned to the Cabinet, in place of the late Lord Curzon as Lord President of the Council until the government ended in 1929. In 1925 he visited the Holy Land.[10]

Apart from a number of colds and occasional influenza, Balfour had good health until 1928, and remained until then a regular tennis player. Four years previously he had been the first president of the International Lawn Tennis Club of Great Britain. At the end of 1928 most of his teeth were removed and he suffered the unremitting circulatory trouble which ended his life. Late in January 1929 Balfour was taken from Whittingehame to Fisher's Hill, his brother Gerald's home near Woking, Surrey. In the past he had suffered occasional phlebitis and by late 1929 he was immobilised by it. Finally, soon after receiving a visit from his friend Chaim Weizmann, Balfour died at Fisher's Hill on 19 March 1930. At his request a public funeral was declined and he was buried on 22 March beside members of his family at Whittingehame in a Church of Scotland service, though he also belonged to the Church of England. By special remainder, the title passed to his brother Gerald.

His obituaries in The Times, The Guardian and the Daily Herald did not mention the declaration for which he is most famous.[11]

Personality[edit]

Balfour developed a manner known to friends as the Balfourian manner. Harold Begbie, a journalist, in a book called Mirrors of Downing Street, criticised Balfour for his manner, personality and self-obsession. Begbie disagreed with Balfour's political views, but even his one-sided criticisms do not entirely conceal Balfour's shyness and diffidence. The sections of the work dealing with Balfour's personality were:

This Balfourian manner, as I understand it, has its roots in an attitude of mind—an attitude of convinced superiority which insists in the first place on complete detachment from the enthusiasms of the human race, and in the second place on keeping the vulgar world at arm's length.

It is an attitude of mind which a critic or a cynic might be justified in assuming, for it is the attitude of one who desires rather to observe the world than to shoulder any of its burdens; but it is a posture of exceeding danger to anyone who lacks tenderness or sympathy, whatever his purpose or office may be, for it tends to breed the most dangerous of all intellectual vices, that spirit of self-satisfaction which Dostoievsky declares to be the infallible mark of an inferior mind.

To Mr. Arthur Balfour this studied attitude of aloofness has been fatal, both to his character and to his career. He has said nothing, written nothing, done nothing, which lives in the heart of his countrymen. To look back upon his record is to see a desert, and a desert with no altar and with no monument, without even one tomb at which a friend might weep. One does not say of him, "He nearly succeeded there", or "What a tragedy that he turned from this to take up that"; one does not feel for him at any point in his career as one feels for Mr. George Wyndham or even for Lord Randolph Churchill; from its outset until now that career stretches before our eyes in a flat and uneventful plain of successful but inglorious and ineffective self-seeking.

There is one signal characteristic of the Balfourian manner which is worthy of remark. It is an assumption in general company of a most urbane, nay, even a most cordial spirit. I have heard many people declare at a public reception that he is the most gracious of men, and seen many more retire from shaking his hand with a flush of pride on their faces as though Royalty had stooped to inquire after the measles of their youngest child. Such is ever the effect upon vulgar minds of geniality in superiors: they love to be stooped to from the heights.

But this heartiness of manner is of the moment only, and for everybody; it manifests itself more personally in the circle of his intimates and is irresistible in week-end parties; but it disappears when Mr. Balfour retires into the shell of his private life and there deals with individuals, particularly with dependants. It has no more to do with his spirit than his tail-coat and his white tie. Its remarkable impression comes from its unexpectedness; its effect is the shock of surprise. In public he is ready to shake the whole world by the hand, almost to pat it on the shoulder; but in private he is careful to see that the world does not enter even the remotest of his lodge gates.

"The truth about Arthur Balfour," said George Wyndham, "is this: he knows there's been one ice-age, and he thinks there's going to be another."

Little as the general public may suspect it, the charming, gracious, and cultured Mr. Balfour is the most egotistical of men, and a man who would make almost any sacrifice to remain in office. It costs him nothing to serve under Mr. Lloyd George; it would have cost him almost his life to be out of office during a period so exciting as that of the Great War. He loves office more than anything this world can offer; neither in philosophy nor music, literature nor science, has he ever been able to find rest for his soul. It is profoundly instructive that a man with a real talent for the noblest of those pursuits which make solitude desirable and retirement an opportunity should be so restless and dissatisfied, even in old age, outside the doors of public life.
—Begbie, Harold (as 'A Gentleman with a Duster'): Mirrors of Downing Street: Some political reflections, Mills and Boon (1920), p. 76–79

Churchill compared Balfour to H. H. Asquith: "The difference between Balfour and Asquith is that Arthur is wicked and moral, while Asquith is good and immoral." Balfour said of himself, "I am more or less happy when being praised, not very comfortable when being abused, but I have moments of uneasiness when being explained."[12]

Writings and academic achievements[edit]

Balfour is thought to have formulated the basis for the evolutionary argument against naturalism. Balfour argued the Darwinian premise of selection for reproductive fitness cast doubt on scientific naturalism, because human cognitive facilities that would accurately perceive truth could be less advantageous than adaptation for evolutionarily useful illusions.[13] He was a member of the Society for Psychical Research, a society studying psychic and paranormal phenomena, and was its president from 1892 to 1894.

Artistic[edit]

After the First World War, when there was controversy over the style of headstone proposed for use on British war graves being taken on by the Imperial War Graves Commission, Balfour submitted a design for a cruciform headstone.[14] At an exhibition in August 1919, it drew many criticisms; the Commission's principal architect, Sir John Burnet, said Balfour's cross would create a criss-cross effect destroying any sense of "restful diginity", Edwin Lutyens called it "extraordinarily ugly", and its shape was variously described as resembling a shooting target or bottle.[14] His design was not accepted but the Commission offered him a second chance to submit another design which he did not take up, having been refused once.[15] After a further exhibition in the House of Commons, the "Balfour cross" was ultimately rejected in favour of the standard headstone the Commission permanently adopted because the latter offered more space for inscriptions and service emblems.[16]

Popular culture[edit]

  • Balfour was the subject of two parody novels based on Alice in Wonderland, Clara in Blunderland (1902) and Lost in Blunderland (1903), which appeared under the pseudonym Caroline Lewis; one of the co-authors was Harold Begbie.[17][18]
  • The character Arthur Balfour plays a supporting, off-screen role in Upstairs, Downstairs, promoting the family patriarch, Richard Bellamy, to the position of Civil Lord of the Admiralty.[citation needed].
  • A fictionalised version of Arthur Balfour (identified as "Mr. Balfour") appears as British Prime Minister in the science fiction romance The Angel of the Revolution by George Griffith, published in 1893 (when Balfour was still in opposition) but set in an imagined near future of 1903–1905.
  • The indecisive Balfour (identified as "Halfan Halfour") appears in a satirical short story by Saki in which he, and other leading politicians including Quinston, are changed into animals appropriate to their characters.

Legacy[edit]

A portrait of Balfour by Philip de Lazlo is in the collection of Trinity College, Cambridge.[19]

Balfouria, a Moshav in Israel and many streets in Israel name after him.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ [1] Oxford Dictionaries Online
  2. ^ a b Tuchman, The Proud Tower, p. 46.
  3. ^ "Balfour, Arthur (BLFR866AJ)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  4. ^ a b Oppenheim, Janet (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850–1914. Cambridge University Press. pp. 132–133. ISBN 0-521-34767-X. 
  5. ^ Wilson, A.N. (2011). The Victorians. Random House. p. 530. ISBN 1-4464-9320-2. 
  6. ^ Sargent, John Singer (1899, published February 2010). "The Wyndham Sisters: Lady Elcho, Mrs. Adeane, and Mrs. Tennant". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 4 June 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. ^ R. J. Q. Adams, Balfour, The Last Grandee, p. 47.
  8. ^ Mackay, Balfour, Intellectual Statesman, p. 8.
  9. ^ Source, notes of David Hunter Miller, pg 183, Vol I, The Drafting of the Covenant, 1928, Putnam.
  10. ^ "In the Promised Land". Time Magazine. 13 April 1925. 
  11. ^ Teveth, Shabtai (1985) Ben-Gurion and the Palestinian Arabs. From Peace to War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503562-3. Page 106.
  12. ^ History of Arthur James Balfour – GOV.UK. Number10.gov.uk (19 March 1930). Retrieved on 15 August 2013.
  13. ^ The Immortalization Commission (2011) John Gray
  14. ^ a b Longworth, Philip (1985). The Unending Vigil. The History of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Leo Cooper Pen & Sword Books. p. 48. ISBN 1-84415-004-6. 
  15. ^ The Unending Vigil. p. 49. 
  16. ^ The Unending Vigil. p. 50. 
  17. ^ Sigler, Carolyn, ed. 1997. Alternative Alices: Visions and Revisions of Lewis Carroll's "Alice" Books. Lexington, KY, University Press of Kentucky. Pp. 340–347
  18. ^ Dickinson, Evelyn. 1902. "Literary Note and Books of the Month", in United Australia, Vol. II, No. 12, 20 June 1902
  19. ^ "Trinity College, University of Cambridge". BBC Your Paintings. 

References[edit]

  • Torrance, David, The Scottish Secretaries (Birlinn Limited 2006)

Further reading[edit]

Primary sources
  • Harcourt Williams, Robin (Editor): The Salisbury- Balfour Correspondence: 1869–1892, Hertfordshire Record Society (1998)
Secondary sources

Biography:

  • Adams, R.J.Q.: Balfour: The Last Grandee, John Murray, 2007
  • Anderson, Bernard: Arthur James Balfour", Grant Richards, 1903
  • Dugdale, Blanche: Arthur James Balfour, First Earl of Balfour KG, OM, FRS- Volume 1, Hutchinson and Co, 1936
  • Dugdale, Blanche: Arthur James Balfour, First Earl of Balfour KG, OM, FRS- Volume 2- 1906–1930, Hutchinson and Co, 1936
  • Egremont, Max: A life of Arthur James Balfour, William Collins and Company Ltd, 1980
  • Green, E. H. H. Balfour (20 British Prime Ministers of the 20th Century); Haus, 2006. ISBN 1-904950-55-8
  • Mackay, Ruddock F.: "Balfour, Intellectual Statesman", Oxford 1985 ISBN 0-19-212245-2
  • Raymond, E.T: A life of Arthur James Balfour, Little, Brown, 1920
  • Young, Kenneth: Arthur James Balfour: The happy life of the Politician, Prime Minister, Statesman and Philosopher- 1848–1930, G. Bell and Sons, 1963

Other:

External links[edit]

Succession boxes[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Sir Charles Dilke
President of the Local Government Board
1885–1886
Succeeded by
Joseph Chamberlain
Preceded by
The Earl of Dalhousie
Secretary for Scotland
1886–1887
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Lothian
Preceded by
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach
Chief Secretary for Ireland
1887–1891
Succeeded by
William Lawies Jackson
Preceded by
W.H. Smith
First Lord of the Treasury
1891–1892
Succeeded by
William Ewart Gladstone
Leader of the House of Commons
1891–1892
Preceded by
The Earl of Rosebery
First Lord of the Treasury
1895–1905
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Preceded by
Sir William Vernon Harcourt
Leader of the House of Commons
1895–1905
Preceded by
The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
Lord Privy Seal
1902–1903
Succeeded by
The 4th Marquess of Salisbury
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
11 July 1902 – 5 December 1905
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Preceded by
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Leader of the Opposition
1905–1911
Succeeded by
Andrew Bonar Law
Preceded by
Winston Churchill
First Lord of the Admiralty
1915–1916
Succeeded by
Sir Edward Carson
Preceded by
The Viscount Grey of Fallodon
Foreign Secretary
10 December 1916 – 23 October 1919
Succeeded by
The Earl Curzon of Kedleston
Preceded by
The Earl Curzon of Kedleston
Lord President of the Council
1919–1922
Succeeded by
The 4th Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded by
The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Lord President of the Council
1925–1929
Succeeded by
The Lord Parmoor
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Robert Dimsdale
Member of Parliament for Hertford
1874–1885
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Abel Smith
New constituency Member of Parliament for Manchester East
1885–1906
Succeeded by
Thomas Gardner Horridge
Preceded by
Alban Gibbs
Sir Edward Clarke
Member of Parliament for the City of London
February 19061922
With: Sir Edward Clarke to June 1906
Sir Frederick Banbury, Bt from June 1906
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Edward Grenfell
Sir Frederick Banbury, Bt
Party political offices
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W.H. Smith
Conservative Leader in the Commons
1891–1911
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Andrew Bonar Law
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Leader of the British Conservative Party
1902–1911
Academic offices
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The Lord Reay
Rector of the University of St Andrews
1886–1889
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The Marquess of Dufferin and Ava
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Rector of the University of Glasgow
1890–1893
Succeeded by
John Eldon Gorst
Preceded by
Lord Glencorse
Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh
1891–1930
Succeeded by
J. M. Barrie
Preceded by
The Lord Rayleigh
Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
1919–1930
Succeeded by
Stanley Baldwin
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Earl of Balfour
1922–1930
Succeeded by
Gerald William Balfour
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
John Ringling
Cover of Time Magazine
13 April 1925
Succeeded by
Walter P. Chrysler
Scottish feudal lordship
Preceded by
Sir Charles Dalrymple
Lord and Baron of Hailes
1876–1930
Succeeded by
Gerald William Balfour

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.