Born in New York City, of Jewish descent, Berger studied as an undergraduate at New York University, during which time he joined the Young Composer's Group, as a graduate student under Walter Piston at Harvard, and with Nadia Boulanger and at the Sorbonne under a Paine Fellowship.
He taught briefly at Mills College and Brooklyn College, then worked briefly at the New York Sun and then for a longer period of time at the New York Herald Tribune. In 1953 he left the paper to teach at Brandeis University where he was eventually named the Irving Fine Professor Emeritus. His notable students there included Gustav Ciamaga and Richard Wernick. He taught occasionally at the New England Conservatory during his retirement.
He co-founded (with Benjamin Boretz), in 1962, Perspectives of New Music, which he edited until 1964. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1971. He wrote the first book on Aaron Copland (reprinted 1990, Da Capo Press), and coined the terms octatonic scale and pitch centricity in his "Problems of Pitch Organization in Stravinsky". He died in Boston, Massachusetts, age 91.
His works show a preoccupation with vertical and horizontal musical space (see pitch space). His musical influences include Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, and later Anton Webern. In the forties he composed neoclassical works including Serenade Concertante (1944) and Three Pieces for Strings (1945), and embraced the twelve-tone technique in the fifties. His later works moved away from serialism but continued to use tone cluster 'cells' whose pitch classes are displaced by octaves. George Perle has described his "keen and sophisticated musical intellect" and praised "his serial music [for being] as far removed from current fashionable trends as his diatonic music was a few years ago." Perle further praises his String Quartet: "in the quartet, as in Berger's earlier works, and in most of the great music of our Western heritage, timbre, texture, dynamics, rhythm, and form are elements of a musical language whose syntax and grammar are essentially derived from pitch relations. If these elements never seem specious and arbitrary, as they do with so many of the dodecaphonic productions that deluge us today from both the left and right, it is precisely because of the authenticity and integrity of his musical thinking at this basic level."
His works include Ideas of Order, Polyphony, Quartet for Winds, described by Thomson as "one of the most satisfactory pieces for winds in the whole modern repertory", String Quartet (1958), Five Pieces for Piano (1969) and Septet (1965–66). He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
- John Mac Ivor Perkins, "Arthur Berger: The Composer as Mannerist", Perspectives of New Music 5, no. 1 (Autumn–Winter, 1966), pp.75-92; citation on p.76. Reprinted in Perspectives on American Composers, edited by Benjamin Boretz and Edward T. Cone,[page needed] The Perspectives of New Music Series; Norton Library, no. 549 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1971): p.231.
- Robert Morse Crunden (2000). Body & Soul: The Making of American Modernism, p.42-3. ISBN 978-0-465-01484-2.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- (1980). "Liner notes: Form", NewWorldRecords.org.
- Anderson, E. Ruth. Contemporary American Composers. A Biographical Dictionary, 2nd edition, G. K. Hall, 1982.
- Butterworth, Neil. A Dictionary of American Composers, Garland, 1984.
- Coppock, Jane. "A Conversation with Arthur Berger". Perspectives of New Music 17, no. 1 (1978), pp. 40–67.
- Cummings, David M.; McIntire, Dennis K. (Ed.). International who's who in music and musician's directory. In the classical and light classical fields, 12th edition 1990/91, International Who's Who in Music 1991.
- Gordon, Stewart. A History of Keyboard Literature. Music for the Piano and its Forerunners, Schirmer Books, 1996.
- Jones, Pamela. "A Bibliography of the Writings of Arthur Berger". Perspectives of New Music 17, no. 1 (1978), p. 83-89.
- Jones, Robert Frederick. A List of Works by Arthur Berger. Perspectives of New Music. 17, 1 (1978), p. 90-91.
- Lister, Rodney. "Arthur Berger: The Progress of a Method", American Music, 13-1, 1995, pp. 56–95.
- Lyman, Darryl. Great Jews in Music, J. D. Publishers, 1986.
- Northcott, Bayan. "Arthur Berger: An Introduction at 70", Musical Times, 123 (1982), pp. 323–326.
- Pollack, Howard Joel. Harvard composers. Walter Piston and his students, from Elliott Carter to Frederic Rzewski, Scarecrow Press, 1992.
- Press, Jaques Cattell (Ed.). Who's who in American Music. Classical, 1st edition. R. R. Bowker, 1983.
- Silver, Sheila. "Pitch and Registral Distribution in Arthur Berger's Music for Piano", Perspectives of New Music 17, no. 1 (1978), p. 68-76.
- Sadie, Stanley; Hitchcock, H. Wiley (Ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of American Music. Grove's Dictionaries of Music, 1986.
- Arthur Berger Official Website
- Art of the States: Arthur Berger
- Arthur Berger papers in the Music Division of The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
- The online music review La Folia has an article about Berger: Remembering Arthur Berger
- Arthur Berger, Composer and Music Critic, Is Dead at 91, The New York Times, October 10, 2003 (retrieved January 31, 2010)