Celbridge, County Kildare, Ireland
|Died||23 January, 1803 (aged 77–78)
Mountjoy Square, Dublin
|Oughter Ard, Kildare|
|Nationality||Kingdom of Ireland|
|Occupation||Brewer and businessman|
|Known for||Founder of Guinness|
|Religion||Church of Ireland|
At 27, in 1752, Guinness's godfather Arthur Price, the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Cashel, bequeathed him £100 in his will. Guinness invested the money and in 1755 had a brewery at Leixlip, just 17 km from Dublin. In 1759, Guinness went to the city and set up his own business. He took a 9,000-year lease on the 4-acre (16,000 m2) brewery at St. James's Gate from the descendants of Sir Mark Rainsford for an annual rent of £45.
Guinness's florid signature is still copied on every label of bottled Guinness.
Arthur Guinness was born into the Protestant Guinness family, part of the Anglo-Irish aristrocracy. They are claimed to descend from the Gaelic Magennis clan of County Down. Recent DNA evidence however suggests descent from the McCartans, another County Down clan, whose spiritual home lay in the townland of "Guiness" near Ballynahinch, County Down (in Gaelic, "Gion Ais").
Guinness's place and date of birth are the subject of speculation. His gravestone in Oughterard, County Kildare says he died on 23 January 1803, at age 78, indicating that he was born some time in 1724 or very early in 1725. This contradicts the date of 28 September 1725 chosen by the Guinness company in 1991, apparently to end speculation about his birthdate. The place of birth was perhaps his mother's home at Read homestead at Ardclough County Kildare.
In 2009 it was claimed he was born in nearby Celbridge where his parents lived in 1725 and where his father later became land steward for the Archbishop of Cashel, Dr. Arthur Price, and may have brewed beer for the other workers on the estate. In his will, Dr. Price left £100 each to "his servant" Arthur and his father in 1752. Starting his first brewery in Leixlip in 1755, he also bought a long lease of an adjacent site from George Bryan "of Philadelphia" in 1756 that was developed as investment property.
In 1761 he married Olivia Whitmore in St. Mary's Church, Dublin, and they had 21 children, 10 of whom lived to adulthood. Olivia's father was William Whitmore, a grocer in Essex Street, Temple Bar, Dublin, and her mother was Mary Grattan from Carbury, County Kildare.
From 1764 they lived at Beaumont House, which he had built on a 51-acre (21 ha) farm, which is now a part of Beaumont Convalescent Home, behind the main part of Beaumont Hospital, between Santry and Raheny in north County Dublin. His landlord was Charles Gardiner. Beaumont (meaning beautiful hill) was named by Arthur and the later Beaumont parish copied the name. From March 1798 he lived at Mountjoy Square in Dublin, which was then in the process of being built in the style of elegant Georgian architecture, . Three of his sons were also brewers, and his other descendants eventually included missionaries, politicians, and authors (see: Guinness family).
He died in Dublin and was buried in his mother's family plot at Oughterard, County Kildare in January 1803.
Guinness supported Henry Grattan in the 1780s and 1790s, not least because Grattan wanted to reduce the tax on beer. He was one of the four brewers' guild representatives on Dublin Corporation from the 1760s until his death. Like Grattan, Guinness was publicly in favour of Catholic Emancipation from 1793, however, he was not a supporter of the United Irishmen during the 1798 rebellion and was against Irish home-rule. In general, the Guinness family became Irish Unionists and Arthur Guinness accepted the system, with Arthur "directly opposed to any movement toward Irish independence" and wanting "Ireland to remain under English control". The reality for an 18th-century Dublin merchant was more complex, as Irish politics changed markedly after the closure of the Dublin parliament in 1801. Grattan's policy from 1780 had secured a technically independent Irish parliament by 1782 under the British crown, but this operated imperfectly; in 1800 Grattan led the opposition to the Act of Union with Britain.
Brewer of porter
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2014)|
Guinness leased a brewery in Leixlip in 1755, brewing ale. Five years later he left his younger brother in charge of that enterprise and moved on to another in St. James' Gate, Dublin, at the end of 1759. Visitors to the brewery can see the 9,000-year lease he signed for it, effective from 31 December 1759. By 1767 he was the master of the Dublin Corporation of Brewers. His first actual sales of porter were listed on tax (excise) data from 1778, and it seems that other Dublin brewers had experimented in brewing porter beer from the 1760s. From the 1780s his second son Arthur (1768–1855) worked at his side and eventually became the senior partner in the brewery from 1803.
His major achievement was in expanding his brewery in 1797–99. Thereafter he brewed only porter and employed members of the Purser family who had brewed porter in London from the 1770s. The Pursers became partners in the brewery for most of the 19th century. By his death in 1803 the annual brewery output was over 20,000 barrels. Subsequently Arthur and/or his beer was nicknamed "Uncle Arthur" in Dublin.
Arthur Guinness Fund
To further honour Arthur Guinness's legacy, in 2009 Guinness & Co. established the Arthur Guinness Fund (AGF). An internal fund set up by the Company, its aim is to enable and empower individuals with skills and opportunities to deliver a measured benefit to their communities. Guinness has donated more than €7 million to the Fund since its inception.
n October 2013 a statue of him was erected in his birthplace Celbridge.
- D. Wilson, Dark and Light (Weidenfeld, London 1998) ISBN 0-297-81718-3
- M. Guinness, The Guinness Spirit (Hodder, London 1999) ISBN 0-340-72165-0
- P. Guinness, Arthur's Round (Peter Owen, London 2008) ISBN 978-0-7206-1296-7
- J. Joyce, "The Guinnesses; The Untold Story of Ireland's Most Successful Family" (Poolbeg Press, Dublin 2009) ISBN 978-1-84223-403-7
- The Story: "1759: It begins with a signature" Official web site. Retrieved< 22 October 2013.
- Robert Bell "The Book of Ulster Surnames", published 1997
- Guinness origins begin to settle
- Visit to Oughterard by Kerry J Byrne
- Corry, Eoghan and Tancred, Jim "The Annals of Ardclough" pp70-71 (2004)
- Plaque Unveiled in Celbridge to honour Birth Place of Arthur Guinness
- George Bryan was born in Dublin in 1731, and became one of the American revolutionary leaders in the 1770s.
- National Library of Ireland, Gardiner Papers, Mss. 36,501-36,626
- Who was Arthur Guinness? It depends on which one you mean, September 19, 2009, The Irish Times
- Sean Dunne, Z Magazine
- IndyMedia.ie - Guinness Stout: From English to Corporate Colonialism
- Arthur Guinness Fund
- http://www.leinsterleader.ie/news/local-news/arthur-guinness-arrives-home-to-celbridge-1-5578650 Leinster Leader, October 2013