Arthur Hood, 1st Baron Hood of Avalon

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The Lord Hood of Avalon
Arthurhood.jpg
Lord Hood of Avalon
Born (1824-07-14)14 July 1824
Bath, Somerset
Died 16 November 1901(1901-11-16) (aged 77)
Glastonbury, Somerset
Allegiance United Kingdom United Kingdom
Service/branch Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Navy
Years of service 1836 - 1889
Rank Admiral
Commands held HMS Acorn
HMS Pylades
HMS Excellent
HMS Monarch
Channel Fleet
Battles/wars Oriental Crisis
Crimean War
Second Opium War
Awards Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath

Admiral Arthur William Acland Hood, 1st Baron Hood of Avalon GCB (14 July 1824 – 16 November 1901), was an officer of the Royal Navy. As a junior officer he took part in the capture of Acre during the Oriental Crisis in 1840 and went ashore with the naval brigade at the defence of Eupatoria in November 1854 during the Crimean War. He became First Naval Lord in June 1885 and in that role was primarily concerned with enshrining into law the recommendations contained in a report on the disposition of the ships of the Royal Navy many of which were unarmoured and together incapable of meeting the combined threat from any two of the other naval powers ("the Two-power Standard"): these recommendations were contained in the Naval Defence Act 1889.

Early life[edit]

Hood was born the younger son of Sir Alexander Hood, 2nd Baronet and Amelia Anne Hood (née Bateman).[1] His grandfather, Captain Alexander Hood, had been killed in action during the French Revolutionary Wars; he fell whilst in command of HMS Mars, in action with the French 74-gun ship Hercule on 2 April 1798.[1]

Naval career[edit]

Hood entered the Royal Navy in 1836 and served on the north coast of Spain and afterwards on the coast of Syria taking part in the capture of Acre in November 1840 during the Oriental Crisis.[1] Promoted to lieutenant on 9 January 1846, he joined the fourth-rate HMS President on the Cape of Good Hope Station that same month.[2] In January 1850 he transferred to the fourth-rate HMS Arethusa serving with her in the Channel Squadron, in the Mediterranean Fleet and then in the Black Sea: he went ashore with the naval brigade and took part in the defence of Eupatoria in November 1854 during the Crimean War.[2] He was appointed to the Turkish Order of the Medjidie, 5th class for his services in the Crimea.[3]

Promoted to commander – in recognition of his services at Eupatoria – on 27 November 1854,[4] Hood was given command of the brig HMS Acorn on the China Station in May 1856, and arrived in time to take part in the destruction of the junks in the Battle of Fatshan Creek in June 1857 and in the Battle of Canton in December 1857 during the Second Opium War.[2]

Promoted to captain – in recognition of his services in China – on 26 February 1858,[5] Hood was given command of HMS Pylades on the North America and West Indies Station in December 1862 and then became Captain of the gunnery school HMS Excellent as well as Director of the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth in September 1866.[2] He went on to be Director of Naval Ordnance at the Admiralty in 1869 and, having been appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath on 20 May 1871,[6] he became Captain of the turret ship HMS Monarch in the Channel Squadron in June 1874.[2] Promoted to rear-admiral on 22 March 1876,[7] he became Second Naval Lord in January 1877 and then Commander-in-Chief of the Channel Squadron in December 1879 with promotion to vice-admiral on 23 July 1880.[8]

Hood was appointed First Naval Lord in June 1885, advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 19 December 1885 and promoted to full admiral on 18 January 1886.[9] He stood down in March 1886, just nine months after taking office, when the Marquis of Ripon was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty but was restored to his position when William Gladstone's Liberal Government fell from power in August 1886.[10] As First Naval Lord he favoured low freeboard turret battleships and was instrumental in ensuring the Trafalgar class battleships entered service.[1] However he was primarily concerned with enshrining into law the recommendations contained in a report on the disposition of the ships of the Royal Navy many of which were unarmoured and together incapable of meeting the combined threat from any two of the other naval powers ("the Two-power Standard"): these recommendations were contained in the Naval Defence Act 1889.[1] He retired on attaining the age of sixty-five in July 1889.[11]

Hood was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 3 September 1889[12] and raised to the peerage as Baron Hood of Avalon, in the County of Somerset on 23 February 1892.[13] He died at his nephew's house in Glastonbury on 16 November 1901 and was buried at Butleigh in Somerset on 23 November 1901.[1]

Family[edit]

In 1855 Hood married Fanny Henrietta, daughter of Sir Charles Maclean, 9th Baronet; they had two daughters.[1]

HMS Trafagar, a ship of the type which Hood favoured and which he was instrumental in delivering into service

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Arthur Hood, 1st Baron Hood of Avalon". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "William Loney RN". Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 22122. p. 1736. 3 April 1858. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  4. ^ The London Gazette: no. 21656. p. 352. 30 January 1855. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 22104. p. 1028. 26 February 1858. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 23739. p. 2473. 20 May 1871. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24309. p. 2155. 28 March 1876. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24869. p. 4211. 30 July 1880. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25551. p. 329. 22 January 1886. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  10. ^ Heathcote, p. 112
  11. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25955. p. 3895. 19 July 1889. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  12. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25970. p. 4785. 3 September 1889. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  13. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26260. p. 991. 23 February 1892. Retrieved 26 December 2012.

Sources[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Geoffrey Hornby
Second Naval Lord
1877–1879
Succeeded by
Earl of Clanwilliam
Preceded by
Lord John Hay
Commander-in-Chief, Channel Fleet
1880–1882
Succeeded by
Sir William Dowell
Preceded by
Sir Astley Key
First Naval Lord
1885–1886
Succeeded by
Lord John Hay
Preceded by
Lord John Hay
First Naval Lord
1886–1889
Succeeded by
Sir Richard Hamilton
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Hood of Avalon
1892–1901
Extinct