Arthur Alexander Johann Milchhöfer (March 21, 1852 – December 7, 1903) was a German archaeologist born in Schirwindt, East Prussia, a village in the easternmost corner of the German Reich.
He studied in Berlin and at the University of Munich, where he was a student of Heinrich Brunn (1822–1894). Subsequently he became an assistant to Ernst Curtius (1814–1896) in Berlin, and in 1883 was habilitated for archaeology at the University of Göttingen. Later on he was an associate professor at the University of Münster, where he was also in charge of the library of classical archaeology. In 1895 he became a professor of archaeology at the University of Kiel.
Milchhöfer was a specialist of Greek antiquities. He is remembered for his topographical research of ancient Attica. In his 1883 book "Die Anfänge der Kunst in Griechenland" (The Origins of Art in Greece), he was the first to suggest that Crete was the center of Mycenaean culture. Other noted works on ancient Greece by Milchhöfer include:
- Die Stadtgeschichte von Athen (The history of the city of Athens), (1891); with Ernst Curtius (1814–1896).
- Karten von Attika (Charts of Attica), (1881–1903); with Curtius and Johann August Kaupert (1822–1899).