Sir Arthur Throckmorton (ca. 1557 – 21 July 1626) was an English courtier and politician.
He was the second son of the diplomat Sir Nicholas Throckmorton of Beddington, Surrey and was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford. His sister Elizabeth incurred the Queen's displeasure by secretly marrying Sir Walter Raleigh. Arthur inherited estates in several counties on the death of his father in 1571 (his elder brother was adjudged a lunatic) and after his marriage opted to reside at Paulerspury in Northamptonshire. He travelled abroad from 1580 to 1582 after which he joined the court of Queen Elizabeth I.