Arthur Winnington-Ingram

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Arthur Winnington-Ingram
KCVO PC
Bishop of London
Arthur Winnington-Ingram, Bishop of London c1901.png
Arthur Winnington-Ingram shortly after his appointment as Bishop of London in 1901
Church Church of England
Diocese Diocese of London
Elected 1901
Term ended 1939
Predecessor Mandell Creighton
Successor Geoffrey Fisher
Other posts Bishop of Stepney
1897–1901
Orders
Ordination Geoffrey Fisher
Consecration c. 1897
Personal details
Born (1858-01-26)26 January 1858
Stanford-on-Teme, Worcestershire, United Kingdom
Died 26 May 1946(1946-05-26) (aged 88)
Upton-upon-Severn, Worcestershire
Nationality British
Denomination Anglican
Parents Revd Edward Winnington-Ingram & Louisa Pepys
Alma mater Keble College, Oxford
"London" – Winnington-Ingram as caricatured by Spy (Leslie Ward) in Vanity Fair, May 1901
The Bishop of London on a visit to the Royal Navy flagship in 1916 (Illustrated War News)

Arthur Foley Winnington-Ingram KCVO PC (26 January 1858 – 26 May 1946) was Bishop of London from 1901 to 1939.

Early life and career[edit]

He was born in the rectory at Stanford-on-Teme, Worcestershire, the fourth son of the Revd Edward Winnington-Ingram and of Louisa (daughter of Henry Pepys, Bishop of Worcester).[1] Ingram was educated at Marlborough College and Keble College, Oxford. His younger brother Edward and his nephew (Edward's son) Arthur both became Archdeacon of Hereford.[2]

He was a private tutor in Europe,[3] 1881–84; curate at St Mary's, Shrewsbury, 1884–85; private chaplain to the Bishop of Lichfield, 1885–89; head of Oxford House Settlement, Bethnal Green 1889-97,[4] chaplain to the Archbishop of York, 1889; rector of Bethnal Green, 1895; rural dean of Spitalfields, 1896; and canon of St Paul's Cathedral, 1897.

Episcopal career[edit]

In 1897, Winnnington-Ingram was raised to the episcopate as the second suffragan Bishop of Stepney.[5] In 1901, after the death of Mandell Creighton, he was nominated to the see of London,[6] and he was in the same year appointed as a Privy Counsellor.[7] As a preacher he proved very successful. He was a leader in social work in London's East End. As an administrator he has been judged inefficient in maintaining standards among the clergy in comparison with his disciplinarian-minded successor Geoffrey Fisher, a feature aggravated by his lengthy tenure.

World War One[edit]

During World War I Winnington-Ingram threw himself into supporting the war effort. He saw the war as a ‘great crusade to defend the weak against the strong’ and accepted uncritically stories of German atrocities. For a clergyman the language he used about the German people verged on xenophobia but Herbert Asquith, Prime Minister at the outbreak of the war, described his pitch as "jingoism of the shallowest kind." He spoke in aid of recruiting drives and later in the war urged his younger clergy to consider enlisting as combatants. Chaplain from 1901 to the London Rifle Brigade and London Royal Naval Volunteers, he visited the troops on both the Western Front and at Salonika and the Grand Fleet at Rosyth and Scapa Flow.[8]

For his war work he was Mentioned in Despatches and awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer (Greece) and the Order of St. Sava, 1st Class (Serbia).

Later life and legacy[edit]

On 22 May 1946, Winnington-Ingram was taken ill while playing golf and he died a few days later on 26 May 1946 in Upton-upon-Severn, Worcestershire.[9] His remains were buried at St Paul's Cathedral.[10] He never married, although while Bishop of Stepney he was briefly engaged[11] to Lady Ulrica Duncombe, a friend of Queen Alexandra and daughter of William Ernest Duncombe, 1st Earl of Feversham of Ryedale and Mabel Violet Graham.

Australian sculptor Theodora Cowan created a portrait bust of Dr Ingram which "took pride of place" in her one-woman show at London's Grafton Galleries.[12][13]

He is commemorated in some of the street names in Hampstead Garden Suburb: The Bishops Avenue, Winnington Road and Ingram Avenue; and Bishop Winnington-Ingram Primary School, Ruislip.[14]

Works[edit]

Unless otherwise indicated, all titles sourced from his sketch in Crockford's Clerical Directory 1938:

  • Old Testament Difficulties (1890)
  • New Testament Diffiuclties (1892)
  • Church Difficulties (1893)
  • Work in Great Cities (1895)
  • Messengers, Watchmen, Stewards (1896)
  • The Men Who Crucified Christ (1896)
  • Friends of the Master (1897)
  • Banners of the Christian Faith (1899)
  • Popular Objections to Christianity (1899)
  • The Afterglow of a Great Reign (1901)
  • Under the Dome (1902)
  • Addresses in Holy Week (1902)
  • Faith of Church and Nation (1904)
  • The Gospel in Action (1906)
  • A mission of the Spirit (1906)
  • The Call of the Father (1907)
  • The Love of the Trinity (1908)
  • Into the Fighting Line (1909)
  • The Mysteries of God (1910)
  • Secrets of Strength (1911)
  • The Attractiveness of Goodness (1913)
  • The Gospel of the Miraculous (1913)
  • A Day of God (1914)
  • The Eyes of Flames (1914)
  • The Church in time of war (1915)
  • The Potter and the Clay (1917)
  • Rays of Dawn (1918)
  • Victory and After (1919)
  • Spirit of Peace (1921)[15]
  • Rebuilding the Walls (1922)
  • The Spirit of Jesus (1925)
  • The Sword of Goliath (1926)
  • Some World Problems (1927)
  • Holiday Recollections of a World Tour (1928)
  • Why am I a Christian? (1929)
  • Good News from God (1930)
  • What the Cross Means to Me (1934)
  • Has God spoken to man? (1934)
  • Has the Kingdom of God Arrived? (1935)
  • Nine Christian Virtues (1936)
  • Every Man's Problems and Difficulties (1937)
  • What a Layman Should Believe (1938)
  • The Secrets of Happiness (1939)[16]
  • Fifty Years' Work in London (1940)[16]
  • Secrets of Fortitude (1940)[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wickham Legg, L.G. and, E.T. Williams (editors) (1959). Dictionary of National Biography, 1941-1950. Oxford University Press. p. 964. Article by Cuthbert Thicknesse.
  2. ^ "Winnington-Ingram, Ven. Arthur John". Who Was Who 1920–2008. Who's Who (December 2007 online ed.). A & C Black. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  3. ^ Dictionary of National Biography, 1941-1950. p. 965. 
  4. ^ History of Oxford House
  5. ^ Who's Who, 1901
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27295. p. 1937. 19 March 1901.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27313. p. 3273. 14 May 1901.
  8. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 29. Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 281. ISBN 0-19-861379-2. Article by Jeremy Morris.
  9. ^ "Dr AF Winnington-Ingram" (Obituaries). The Times (London). Monday, 27 May 1946. (50462), col D, p. 6.
  10. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 29. p. 282. 
  11. ^ "Winnington Ingram". Auckland Star. XXXII (111). 11 May 1901. p. 5. 
  12. ^ Prior, James (11 December 1985). "Theodora Cowan - Chipping away at a career ... and sexism". The Sun (Sydney) . p. 49. 
  13. ^ Sturgeon, Graeme (1978). The Development of Australian Sculpture 1788-1975. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 48. 
  14. ^ Bishop Winnington-Ingram Primary School website
  15. ^ Who Was Who, 1941-1950. A and C Black. 1952. p. 588. 
  16. ^ a b c Who Was Who, 1941-1950. p. 589. 

External links[edit]

Church of England titles
Preceded by
Forrest Browne
Bishop of Stepney
1897–1901
Succeeded by
Cosmo Lang
Preceded by
Mandell Creighton
Bishop of London
1901–1939
Succeeded by
Geoffrey Fisher