Article 7 of the European Convention on Human Rights
1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed.
2. This Article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognised by civilised nations.
- Kokkinakis v. Greece (no violation found, 8:1)
- Vassili Kononov (no violation found, 14:3)
- Nikola Jorgic (no violation found, unanimously)
- Nikolay Tess (2008 - decision on admissibility postponed)
- Mykolas Burokevičius (no violation found, unanimously)
- Maktouf and Damjanović v. Bosnia and Herzegovina (2013; violation found, unanimously)