Articular capsule

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Joint capsule
Joint.png
Typical joint
Gray299.png
Diagrammatic section of a diarthrodial joint.
Latin capsula articularis
Gray's p.282
Anatomical terminology

An articular capsule (or joint capsule) is an envelope surrounding a synovial joint.[1]

Layers[edit]

Each capsule consists of two layers:

  • an outer layer (stratum fibrosum) composed of avascular white fibrous tissue
  • an inner layer (stratum synoviale) which is a secreting layer, and is usually described separately as the synovial membrane.

On the inside of the capsule, articular cartilage covers the end surfaces of the bones that articulate within that joint.

The outer layer is highly innervated by the same nerves which perforate through the adjacent muscles associated with the joint.

Fibrous membrane[edit]

The fibrous membrane of articular capsule (fibrous capsule) is attached to the whole circumference of the articular end of each bone entering into the joint, and thus entirely surrounds the articulation. It is made up of dense irregular connective tissue.

Pathology[edit]

Frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) is a disorder in which the shoulder capsule becomes inflamed.

Plica Syndrome is a disorder in which the synovial plica becomes inflamed and causes abnormal biomechanics in the knee.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.