Artvin

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This article is about the city of Artvin. See Artvin Province for more information about the surrounding area.
Artvin
Municipality
Artvin Central Mosque and Park
Artvin Central Mosque and Park
Artvin is located in Turkey
Artvin
Artvin
Coordinates: 41°11′00″N 41°49′05″E / 41.18333°N 41.81806°E / 41.18333; 41.81806Coordinates: 41°11′00″N 41°49′05″E / 41.18333°N 41.81806°E / 41.18333; 41.81806
Country Turkey
Province Artvin
Government
 • Mayor Mehmet Kocatepe (AKP)
Area[1]
 • District 1,084.74 km2 (418.82 sq mi)
Elevation 345 m (1,132 ft)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 25,771
 • District 33,692
 • District density 31/km2 (80/sq mi)
Post code 0800
Website www.artvin.bel.tr

Artvin (Georgian: ართვინი) is a city in northeastern Turkey about 30 km inland from the Black Sea. It is located on a hill overlooking the Çoruh River near the Deriner Dam. It is home of Artvin Çoruh University.

History[edit]

Artvin city from Mamacimla district, 1905-1912
Hopa mines, 1900's

The area has a rich history but has not been studied extensively by archaeologists in recent decades. Artifacts dating back to the Bronze Age and even earlier have been found. The Hurri settled in the Artvin area in 2000 BC and were succeeded by the Urartu civilisation, based in Lake Van. Later, the area was part of the kingdom of Colchis but was always vulnerable to invasions, first the Scythians from across the Caucasus, then the Muslim armies led by Habib, son of Caliph Uthman who controlled the area from 853 AD to 1023 when it was conquered by the Byzantines from the Sac Emirate linked to the Abbasids.

An Armenian woman in national costume poses on a hillside near Artvin (in present day Turkey), circa 1910.

The Seljuk Turks of Alp Arslan conquered the area in 1064 AD; but after his death, it was briefly recaptured by the king of Georgia with the help of the Byzantines, but by 1081 was in Turkish hands again when Saltukoğlu Beylik managed to take it back with the aid of Melikşah. With the collapse of the Seljuks, the Artvin area came under the control of the Ildeniz tribe of the Anatolian Turkish beyliks.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Fighting for control between various Turkish clans continued until the Safavids taking advantage of this infighting, were able to conquer the area in 1502.

The Ottoman Empire under Mehmet II defeated the Empire of Trebizond to bring the eastern Black Sea coast and the mountainous hinterland under their control. Subsequent expeditions into the mountains by Selim I and Mehmed Han Yusufeli gave them control of a number of castles and thus the whole district. Kara Ahmet Pasha, the vizer of Suleiman I formed the first Livane Sanjak with the name Pert-Eğekte. In 13 July 1551, with İskender Pasha's Ardanuç castle, the Ottoman control of Artvin was secure. Ahmed III's vizer Hasan Pasha founded the city of Batum in the newly acquired lands of Ajaria and it became the hub of the area.

This lasted 250 years until the area was ceded to the Russians by the Ottoman Empire following the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829), and recovered and again ceded at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. Artvin was in war zone and continuously changing control between Russia and Turkey with the Treaties of Brest-Litovsk, Moscow, and Kars. All this fighting and uncertainty between Russia and Turkey in the late 19th century caused the people of Artvin to suffer terribly, with much of the population moving westwards away from the Russian-controlled zones.

The Russians withdrew from Artvin following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917; but when the First World War ended with the Ottomans on the losing side, British troops moved into the area in 1918, followed by the newly independent Georgians. There were moves to incorporate Artvin into Georgia but a referendum was called in 1920, and, knowing that the vast majority of the population were Turks, the Georgians withdrew their claim on Artvin in 1921 by the Treaty of Kars.[11]

Demographics[edit]

In the census of 1897, the town of Artvin was mainly populated by Armenians but the district in which it lay was largely Turkish. Outside of the town, the population in the district numbered 49,049 people, of whom 39,997 (82%) were Turks and 3,173 (6%) Armenian.[12]

Year Total Ethnic groups
1886[13] 6,442 Armenians 4,922 (76.4%), Turks 1,508 (23.88%)
1897[14] 7,091 Armenians 4,646 (65.1%), Turks 1,491 (21%), Russians 841 (11.8%)
1985[15] 18,720
1990[15] 20,306
2000[15] 23,157
2010[15] 24,354

Geography and Climate[edit]

Artvin is located on the terrace hills by the Çoruh River with most of it on the western bank and has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb ). The climate is wet all year round, and the summers are pleasantly cool, being strongly affected by the nearby Black Sea and its slight elevation. The population of Artvin, the capital town is 24354[16]

Climate data for Artvin
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.0
(62.6)
21.0
(69.8)
27.1
(80.8)
31.7
(89.1)
36.3
(97.3)
39.0
(102.2)
42.0
(107.6)
43.0
(109.4)
39.5
(103.1)
33.0
(91.4)
27.9
(82.2)
20.9
(69.6)
43
(109.4)
Average high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
7.9
(46.2)
12.2
(54)
17.6
(63.7)
21.5
(70.7)
23.8
(74.8)
25.4
(77.7)
25.8
(78.4)
23.5
(74.3)
19.4
(66.9)
13.1
(55.6)
7.6
(45.7)
16.98
(62.57)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
3.7
(38.7)
6.9
(44.4)
11.8
(53.2)
15.7
(60.3)
18.6
(65.5)
20.6
(69.1)
20.7
(69.3)
17.9
(64.2)
14.0
(57.2)
8.9
(48)
4.4
(39.9)
12.15
(53.88)
Average low °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
0.1
(32.2)
2.6
(36.7)
7.0
(44.6)
10.9
(51.6)
14.0
(57.2)
16.7
(62.1)
16.8
(62.2)
13.9
(57)
10.1
(50.2)
5.5
(41.9)
1.5
(34.7)
8.22
(46.79)
Record low °C (°F) −11.9
(10.6)
−11.9
(10.6)
−9.8
(14.4)
−7.1
(19.2)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.7
(38.7)
9.5
(49.1)
9.5
(49.1)
4.2
(39.6)
−1.6
(29.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
−10.8
(12.6)
−11.9
(10.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 85.9
(3.382)
72.4
(2.85)
60.4
(2.378)
57.4
(2.26)
53.0
(2.087)
49.6
(1.953)
31.6
(1.244)
31.4
(1.236)
34.3
(1.35)
61.9
(2.437)
77.6
(3.055)
93.4
(3.677)
708.9
(27.909)
Avg. rainy days 13.0 12.5 13.1 13.3 14.1 12.6 8.5 8.3 8.3 11.1 11.1 12.1 138
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77.5 92.4 136.4 159 204.6 216 207.7 213.9 195 148.8 93 65.1 1,809.4
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [17]

Places of interest[edit]

  • Artvin or Livana (Livane) castle, built in 937

There are a number of Ottoman Empire houses and public buildings including:

  • Salih Bey mosque,[18] built in 1792
  • Çarsi mosque, built in 18th century[18]
  • Balcioglu mosque, built in 18th century[18]
  • The fountain of Çelebi Efendi, built in 1783.

The surrounding countryside offers many places for climbing, trekking and rafting.

Events[edit]

Artvin is known for the Caucasus (Kafkas in Turkish) Culture and Arts Festival, a celebration that takes place every year. The most famous event is the Bull wrestling which draws many local and international visitors.[19]

Sister cities[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ The Turks: Middle ages, Hasan Celāl Güzel, Cem Oğuz, Osman Karatay, 2002
  4. ^ Les Origines de l'Empire ottoman, Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, Gary Leiser, 1992, page 82
  5. ^ European and Islamic trade in the early Ottoman state: the merchants of Genoa and Turkey, Kate Fleet, 1999, page 49
  6. ^ Turkey, Verity Campbell, 2007, page 35
  7. ^ Turkey, James Bainbridge, 2009, page 33
  8. ^ Eastern Turkey: The Bradt Travel Guide, Diana Darke, 2011, page 77
  9. ^ The Turks: Early ages, Hasan Celāl Güzel, Cem Oğuz, Osman Karatay, 2002
  10. ^ The sons of Bayezid: empire building and representation in the Ottoman civil war of 1402-1413, Dimitris J. Kastritsis, 2007, page 2
  11. ^ Artvin Valiliği Resmi Web Sayfası <<! HOŞGELDİNİZ !>>
  12. ^ "Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам Российской Империи кроме губерний Европейской России" (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  13. ^ Свод статистических данных о населении Закавказского края, извлечённых из посемейных списков 1886 года, г. Тифлис, 1893. Available online here
  14. ^ "Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам Российской Империи кроме губерний Европейской России" (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Artvin: Nüfus Bilgileri" (in Turkish). Belediyeler Konuşuyor. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  16. ^ Statistical Institute
  17. ^ http://www.dmi.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=ARTVIN
  18. ^ a b c Sinclair, T.A. (1989). Eastern Turkey: An Architectural & Archaeological Survey, Volume I. Pindar Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780907132325. 
  19. ^ Bullwrestling in Artvin, Turkey

See also[edit]

External links[edit]