Arvieu is located some 23 km south by south-east of Rodez and 7 km north of Alrance. Access to the commune is by the D56 road from Pont-de-Salars in the north-east passing through the commune and the village and continuing south to Durenque. The D82 branches off the D56 north of the village and goes north to Flavin. The D577 branches off the D56 in the south of the commune and goes west to Salmiech. The commune is entirely farmland except for some small patches of forest.
The eastern border of the commune is the Lac de Pareloup. The Céor river rises in the east of the commune and flows west through the village then south forming part of the western border before continuing west to join the Viaur at Saint-Just-sur-Viaur. The Ruisseau de Glauzeilles rises in the north of the commune flowing west then south-west, forming the north-eastern border of the commune, to join the Céor. The Ruisseau de Calieres rises in the east of the commune and flows north to join the Vioulou just north of the commune.
In the 18th century the Vigouroux family of Rodez bought the Lordship
The Arvieu Affair: The village was attacked by a band of counter-revolutionaries from the former Army of Charrié who hid in the Palanges Forest. The house of Citizen Bonnefous, the leading citizen of the commune, was pillaged. Many people were accused of supporting the attackers who were from the de Barrau family of Carcenac-Salmiech.
In 2010 the commune had 865 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
Christian-Pierre Bedel, preface by Bernard Destours, Cassanhas: Arviu, Auriac, Caumont, La Grand'Vila, Saumièg, Senta-Jaleda or Christian-Pierre Bedel e los estatjants del canton de Cassanhas, Rodez, Mission départementale de la culture, 1996, Al canton collection, 240 pages, ill., couv. ill., 28 cm, ISBN 2-907279-30-0, ISSN 1151-8375, BnF 366930046 (French)/(Occitan)
^At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.