Asa Gray by Whipple, 1864.
November 18, 1810|
Sauquoit, New York
|Died||January 30, 1888
|Nationality||United States of America|
He was instrumental in unifying the taxonomic knowledge of the plants of North America. Of Gray's many works on botany, the most popular was his Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, from New England to Wisconsin and South to Ohio and Pennsylvania Inclusive. This book, known simply as Gray's Manual, has gone through a number of editions with botanical illustrations by Isaac Sprague, and remains a standard in the field.
Gray was born in Sauquoit, New York in 1810 and became an M.D. in 1831. In 1838, Gray became the very first professor at the newly founded University of Michigan. Appointed the Professor of Botany and Zoology, Gray was dispatched to Europe by the regents of the university for the purpose of purchasing a suitable array of books to form the university's library. His first purchase was a complete copy of Audubon's The Birds of America for the then extraordinary sum of $970.
In 1842, before ever returning to teach a course at Michigan, Gray accepted appointment as professor of natural history at Harvard University, a post he retained until 1873 while living in Asa Gray House. Through the donation of an immense book and plant collection numbering in the thousands, he effectively created the botany department at Harvard; the Gray Herbarium is named after him. He was President of the AAAS in 1871. In 1859, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences .
He was a pupil of John Torrey, with whom he worked closely; they published the Flora of North America together. The Elements of Botany (1836), an introductory textbook, was the first of Gray's many works.
Travels and research
Gray traveled to the American west on two separate occasions, the first in 1872 and then again with Joseph Dalton Hooker in 1877. Both times his goal was botanical research: he avidly collected plant specimens to bring back with him to Harvard. On his second trip through the American west, he and Hooker reportedly collected over 1000 specimens. They were accompanied for a time by Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden, then in charge of the U.S. Geological and Geophysical Survey of the Territories. Gray and Hooker's research was reported in their joint 1882 publication, "The Vegetation of the Rocky Mountain Region and a Comparison with that of Other Parts of the World," which appeared in volume six of Hayden's Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geophysical Survey of the Territories.
On both trips he climbed Grays Peak, one of Colorado's many fourteeners. This mountain was named after Gray by the botanist and explorer of the Rocky Mountains Charles Christopher Parry, who was likely a student of Gray's at Harvard.
In 1880 David P. Penhallow was accepted by Gray as a research assistant. Penhallow aided in Gray's work regarding the distribution of northern hemisphere plants, and in 1882 Gray recommended Penhallow as a lecturer to Sr John Dawson of McGill University in Montreal, Canada.
Relationship with Darwin
Gray and Charles Darwin met at Kew, introduced by Joseph Dalton Hooker. Darwin then wrote to Gray requesting information about the distribution of various species of American flowers, which Gray provided, and which was helpful in providing information for the development of Darwin's theory. This was the beginning of an extensive lifelong correspondence.
Gray, Darwin and Hooker became lifelong friends and colleagues, and Gray and Hooker conducted research on Darwin’s behalf in 1877 on their Rocky Mountain expedition. After Hooker returned to England and reported to Darwin on their adventure, Darwin wrote back to Gray: “I have just... heard prodigies of your strength & activity. That you run up a mountain like a cat!”
When Darwin received Alfred Russel Wallace's paper which described natural selection, Hooker and Charles Lyell arranged for a joint reading of papers by Darwin and Wallace to the Linnean Society. Since Darwin had nothing prepared, the reading included excerpts from his 1844 Essay and from a letter he had sent to Asa Gray in 1857, outlining his theory. The correspondence with Gray was thus a key piece of evidence in establishing Darwin's intellectual priority with respect to the Theory of evolution by natural selection. Neither Darwin nor Wallace attended the meeting. The papers were published by the society as On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection.
Gray arranged the first US Edition of On the Origin of Species and negotiated royalties on Darwin's behalf. Darwin held Gray in high esteem: he dedicated his book Forms of Flowers (1877) to Gray and he wrote in 1881 "there is hardly any one in the world whose approbation I value more highly than I do yours" Gray, considered by Darwin to be his friend and "best advocate", also attempted to convince Darwin in these letters that design was inherent in all forms of life, and to return to his faith. Gray saw nature as filled with "unmistakable and irresistible indications of design" and argued that "God himself is the very last, irreducible causal factor and, hence, the source of all evolutionary change." Darwin agreed that his theories were "not at all necessarily atheistical" but was unable to share Gray's belief. "I feel most deeply that the whole subject is too profound for the human intellect. A dog might as well speculate on the mind of Newton," he wrote.
Notwithstanding, though Gray was a Christian, he was a staunch supporter of Darwin in America, and collected together a number of his own writings to produce an influential book, Darwiniana (1876). These essays argued for a conciliation between Darwinian evolution and the tenets of theism, at a time when many on both sides perceived the two as mutually exclusive. Gray denied that investigation of physical causes stood opposed to the theological view and the study of the harmonies between mind and Nature, and thought it "most presumable that an intellectual conception realized in Nature would be realized through natural agencies".
In 1868 Gray had a year's leave of absence and visited Darwin in England – the first time they had met since they started their correspondence. Darwin had Gray in mind when he wrote that "It seems to me absurd to doubt that a man may be an ardent theist & an evolutionist."
Gray was a member of First Church in Cambridge, where he served as a Deacon. When the congregation moved into its present building in 1872, at 11 Garden Street, Gray planted two yellowwood trees in front of the church. They stood until October 2014.
He died in 1888 and was buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery. The cemetery's Asa Gray Garden, with a central fountain and numerous unusual tree varieties, is named in his honor.
The Asa Gray Award, the highest award of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, was established in 1984 to honor a living botanist for career achievements.
In 2011, the US Postal Service released an Asa Gray postage stamp, as part of its American Scientists collection, along with Melvin Calvin, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, and Severo Ochoa. This was the third volume of this series.
A park in Lake Helen, Florida is named in his honor.
- "Biographies of scientists and explorers". Retrieved 2007-10-01.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica.
- Laws and regulations of the American Medical Association, with a sketch of Detroit, and a brief history of the University of Michigan, and of the development of the resources of the state.
- Dictionary of Canadian biography David Penhallow entry
- Letter 11330-Darwin, C. to Gray, A. Jan. 21, 1878
- The Darwin-Wallace Paper (complete)
- Letter from Darwin to Gray – See note 3
- Letter 13031 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 29 Jan 1881
- Randy Moore (2002). Evolution in the Courtroom: A Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 125
- Letter 2814 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 22 May 1860
- Denis R. Alexander, Ronald L. Numbers, Biology and Ideology from Descartes to Dawkins. University of Chicago Press. p. 303
- Dramatized extracts from the Darwin Gray Correspondence
- Gray – Darwinania
- Letter 12041 — Darwin, C. R. to Fordyce, John, May 7, 1879
- Herwick III, Edgar B. (October 16, 2014). "142-Year-Old Trees Cut Down In Cambridge". WGBH News. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- "Author Query for 'A.Gray'". International Plant Names Index.
- Gray, Asa (1876). Darwiniana: Essays and Reviews Pertaining to Darwinism. New York: D. Appleton & Company and Biodiversity Heritage Library. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.19483. LCCN 04005631. OCLC 774014. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
- Asa Gray. Dictionary of American Biography. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928–1936.
- Asa Gray. Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. 17 Vols. Gale Research, 1998.
- Asa Gray. Plant Sciences. 4 vols. Macmillan Reference USA, 2001.
- Dupree, A. H. Asa Gray, 1810–1888. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1959.
- Gray, Jane Loring, ed. Letters of Asa Gray. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1894.
- Scientific Papers of Asa Gray, Volume I, selected by Charles Sprague Sargent
- Scientific Papers of Asa Gray, Volume II, selected by Charles Sprague Sargent
- Works by Asa Gray at Project Gutenberg
- Charles Darwin and Asa Gray Discuss Teleology and Design, by Sara Joan Miles. (American Scientific Affiliation)
- Brief Biography and timeline of Asa Gray's life at the website of the Gray Herbarium in Harvard
- A flora of North America, Wiley & Putnam, 1838–1843. Two volumes. With John Torrey
- Gray's Botanical text-book, American Book Company, 1879. Two volumes.
- Gray's school and field book of botany, American Book Company, 1887
- Introduction to structural and systematic botany and vegetable physiology, Phinney & Co., 1862.
- A manual of the botany of the northern United States, 1848. With William Starling Sullivant.
- A natural system of botany, 1837.
- Plantae Wrightianae e Cuba orientali/A. Grisebach, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1860–1862. With A. Grisebach and Charles Wright
- Synoptical flora of North America : the Gamopetalae, a second edition of vol. I, pt. II, and vol. II, pt. I / collected by Asa Gray, Smithsonian Institution, 1888.
- Synoptical flora of North America, American Book Company, 1878–1895/97.
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- Works by Asa Gray at Project Gutenberg
- Darwin Correspondence Project
- Darwin Correspondence Project – Gray, Asa
- Harvard Botany Libraries Archive
- National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir