Asahi Shimbun

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Asahi Shimbun
The Asahi Shimbun logo.svg
Asahi Shimbun first issue.jpg
First issue on 25 January 1879
Type Daily newspaper
Format Broadsheet (40.6 × 54.6 cm)[1]
Owner(s) Michiko Murayama, Shōichi Ueno
Publisher Tadakazu Kimura
Editor-in-chief Yoshibumi Wakamiya
Founded 25 January 1879; 135 years ago (1879-01-25)
Language Japanese
Headquarters Osaka
Circulation 7.96 million (morning edition, 2010)[2]
Official website www.asahi.com
Flag of the Asahi Shimbun Company
Nakanoshima Festival Tower East
Asahi Shimbun Osaka Head Office is on the 9th to the 12th floors.

The Asahi Shimbun (朝日新聞?, IPA: [aꜜsaçi ɕimbɯɴ], literally Morning Sun Newspaper, English: Asahi News) is one of the five national newspapers in Japan. Its circulation, which was 7.96 million for its morning edition and 3.1 million for its evening edition as of June 2010,[3] was second behind that of Yomiuri Shimbun. The company has its registered headquarters in Osaka.

The newspaper had an alliance with the International Herald Tribune, which is owned by The New York Times. Until 2010, they published the International Herald Tribune/The Asahi Shimbun daily for English readers, which replaced Asahi's previous English-language daily, the Asahi Evening News. In 2010, this partnership was dissolved due to unprofitability and the Asahi Shimbun now operates the Asia & Japan Watch online portal for English readers.[4] The Tribune cooperates with Asahi on Aera English, a glossy magazine for English learners.

Political stance[edit]

Asahi Shimbun is opposed to the acceptance of the right of collective self-defense exercise in Japan.[5]

History[edit]

ASA newspaper delivery agent

One of Japan's oldest and largest national daily newspapers, the Asahi Shimbun began publication in Osaka on January 25, 1879 as a small-print, four-page illustrated paper that sold for one sen (a hundredth of a yen) a copy, and had a circulation of approximately 3,000 copies. The three founding officers of a staff of twenty were Kimura Noboru (company president), Murayama Ryōhei (owner), and Tsuda Tei (managing editor). The company's first premises were at Minami-dōri, Edobori in Osaka. On September 13 of the same year, Asahi printed its first editorial.

In 1881, the Asahi adopted an all-news format, and enlisted Ueno Riichi as co-owner. From 1882, Asahi began to receive financial support from the Government and Mitsui, and hardened the management base. Then, under the leadership of Ueno, whose brother was one of the Mitsui managers, and Murayama, the Asahi began its steady ascent to national prominence. On July 10, 1888, the first issue of the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun was published from the Tokyo office at Motosukiyachō, Kyōbashi. The first issue was numbered No. 1,076 as it was a continuation of three small papers: Jiyū no Tomoshibi, Tomoshibi Shimbun and Mesamashi Shimbun.

On April 1, 1907, the renowned writer Natsume Sōseki, then 41, resigned his teaching positions at Tokyo Imperial University, now Tokyo University, to join the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun. This was soon after the publication of his novels Wagahai wa neko de aru (I Am a Cat) and Botchan, which made him the center of literary attention.

On October 1, 1908, Osaka Asahi Shimbun and Tokyo Asahi Shimbun were merged into a single unified corporation, Asahi Shimbun Gōshi Kaisha, with a capitalization of approximately 600,000 yen.

In 1918, because of its critical stance towards Terauchi Masatake's cabinet during the Rice Riots, government authorities suppressed an article in the Osaka Asahi, leading to a softening of its liberal views, and the resignation of many of its staff reporters in protest.

Indeed, the newspaper's liberal position led to its vandalization during the February 26 Incident of 1936, as well as repeated attacks from the right wing throughout this period (and for that matter, throughout its history).

From the latter half of the 1930s, Asahi ardently supported Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe's wartime government (called Konoe Shin Taisei, or Konoe's New Political Order) and criticized capitalism harshly under Taketora Ogata, the Editor in Chief of Asahi Shimbun. Influential editorial writers of Asahi such as Shintarō Ryū, Hiroo Sassa, and Hotsumi Ozaki (an informant for the famous spy Richard Sorge) were the center members of the Shōwa Kenkyūkai, which was a political think tank for Konoe.

Ogata was one of the leading members of the Genyōsha which had been formed in 1881 by Tōyama Mitsuru. The Genyōsha was an ultranationalist group of organized crime figures and those with far right-wing political beliefs. Kōki Hirota, who was later hanged as a Class A war criminal, was also a leading member of the Genyōsha and one of Ogata's best friends. Hirota was the chairman of Tōyama's funeral committee, and Ogata was the vice-chairman.

Ryū, who had been a Marxist economist of the Ōhara Institute for Social Research[6] before he entered Asahi, advocated centrally planned economies in his Nihon Keizai no Saihensei (Reorganization of Japanese Economies. 1939). And Sassa, a son of ultranationalistic politician Sassa Tomofusa, joined hands with far-right generals (they were called Kōdōha or Imperial Way Faction) and terrorists who had assassinated Junnosuke Inoue (ex–Minister of Finance), Baron Dan Takuma (chairman of the board of directors of the Mitsui zaibatsu) and Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi to support Konoe. In 1944, they attempted assassination of Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō (one of the leaders of Tōseiha or Control Group which conflicted with Kōdōha in the Japanese Army).

On 9 April 1937 the Kamikaze, a Mitsubishi aircraft sponsored by the Asahi Shimbun company and flown by Masaaki Iinuma, arrived in London, to the astonishment of the Western world. It was the first Japanese-built aircraft to fly to Europe.

On 1 September 1940, the Osaka Asahi Shimbun and the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun unified their names into the Asahi Shimbun.

On 1 January 1943, the publication of the Asahi Shimbun was stopped by the government after the newspaper published a critical essay contributed by Seigō Nakano, who was also one of the leading members of the Genyōsha and Ogata's best friend.

On 27 December 1943, Nagataka Murayama, a son-in-law of Murayama Ryōhei and the President of Asahi, removed Ogata from the Editor in Chief and relegated him to the Vice President to hold absolute power in Asahi.

On 22 July 1944, Ogata, Vice President of Asahi, became a Minister without Portfolio and the President of Cabinet Intelligence Agency in Kuniaki Koiso's cabinet.

On 7 April 1945, Hiroshi Shimomura, former Vice President of Asahi, became the Minister without Portfolio and the President of Cabinet Intelligence Agency in Kantarō Suzuki's cabinet.

On 17 August 1945, Ogata became the Minister without Portfolio and the Chief Cabinet Secretary and the President of Cabinet Intelligence Agency in Prince Higashikuni's cabinet.

On 5 November 1945, as a way of assuming responsibility for compromising the newspaper's principles during the war, the Asahi Shimbun's president and senior executives resigned en masse.

On 21 November 1946, the newspaper adopted the modern kana usage system (shin kanazukai).

On 30 November 1949, the Asahi Shimbun started to publish the serialized cartoon strip Sazae-san by Machiko Hasegawa. This was a landmark cartoon in Japan's postwar era.

Between 1954 and 1971, Asahi Shimbun published a glossy, large-format annual in English entitled This is Japan.

Between April and May 1989, the president resigned to take responsibility for the Asahi Shimbun coral article hoax incident (ja:朝日新聞珊瑚記事捏造事件).[citation needed]

On 2 April 2001, the English-language daily, the International Herald Tribune/The Asahi Shimbun, was first published.

On 26 June 2007, Yoichi Funabashi was named the third editor-in-chief of the Asahi Shimbun.

Asahi Shimbun Asia Network[edit]

The Asahi Shimbun Asia Network (AAN) is a think tank that aims to promote information exchange in Asia and provide opportunities for scholars, researchers and journalists to share their ideas on pressing themes in Asia. It was established in 1999.[7] Their work includes annual international symposia and the publication of research reports.[8] In 2003, Gong Ro Myung was chosen as the new president of AAN.[7]

Symposia have included:

  • 2008 Human Mobility and Regional Integration in Asia: The Current Situation of Higher Education and Labor Market and Policy Response[9]

Reports include such titles as:

Asahi Prize[edit]

Main article: Asahi Prize

Established in 1929, the Asahi Prize is a prize awarded by the newspaper, since 1992 by the Asahi Shimbun Foundation, for achievements in scholarship or the arts that has made a lasting contribution to Japanese culture or society.[10][11]

Reproductions of past issues[edit]

Reproductions of past issues of the Asahi Shimbun are available in three major forms; as CD-ROMs, as microfilm, and as shukusatsuban (縮刷版, literally, "reduced-sized print editions"). Shukusatsuban is a technology popularized by Asahi Shimbun in the 1930s as a way to compress and archive newspapers by reducing the size of the print to fit multiple pages of a daily newspaper onto one page. Shukusatsuban are geared towards libraries and archives, and are usually organized and released by month. These resources are available at many leading research universities throughout the world (usually universities with reputable Japanese studies programs).

The Asahi Shimbun has a CD-ROM database consisting of an index of headlines and sub-headlines from the years 1945–1999. A much more expensive full-text searchable database is available only at the Harvard-Yenching Library at Harvard University, which notably includes advertisements in its index. Researchers using other university libraries would probably have to first use the CD-ROM index, and then look into the microfilm or shukusatsuban versions. Microfilm versions are available from 1888; shukusatsuban versions are available from 1931. Issues of the Asahi Shimbun printed since August 1984 are available through Lexis-Nexis Academic.

Offices[edit]

  • Osaka Head Office (registered headquarters): Nakanoshima Festival Tower East, 3-18, Nakanoshima Nichome, Kita-ku, Osaka
  • Tokyo Head Office: 3-2, Tsukiji Gochome, Chūō, Tokyo
    • Hokkaidō Office: 1-1, Kita-Nijo-nishi Itchome, Chūō-ku, Sapporo
  • Nagoya Head Office: 3-3, Sakae Itchome, Naka-ku, Nagoya
  • West Head Office: Riverwalk Kitakyushu, 1-1, Muromachi Itchome, Kokura Kita-ku, Kitakyushu
    • Fukuoka Office: 1-1, Hakata Ekimae Nichome, Hakata-ku, Fukuoka

Group companies[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "数字で見る朝日新聞". Asahi. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  2. ^ "全国紙の朝・夕刊別販売部数(単位:部)". Yomiuri. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  3. ^ Japan Audit Bureau of Circulation.
  4. ^ Sharp, Andy (7 December 2010). "Asahi to Drop English Daily". The Diplomat. Retrieved 31 December 2012. 
  5. ^ "Right of collective self-defense Asahi Shimbun "opposite"(集団的自衛権 朝日新聞「反対」)". MEDIA WATCH JAPAN. 
  6. ^ Ohara Institute for Social Research
  7. ^ a b "Gong named head of Asahi Shimbun Asia Network". Asahi Shimbun. 1 October 2003. Archived from the original on 15 December 2003. 
  8. ^ "Asahi Shimbun Asia Network". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 15 July 2010. 
  9. ^ "Research Achievements". Global Institute for Asian Regional Integration, Waseda University. 13 December 2008. 
  10. ^ "Asahi Prize". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. 
  11. ^ "Frontier Research Center's Prof. Hosono Wins Asahi Prize". Tokyo Institute of Technology. 12 January 2011. 

Other sources[edit]

  • Asahi Shimbun Shashi (Tokyo and Osaka: Asahi Shimbun Sha, 1990–1995. Official history of Asahi)
  • "Asahi Shimbun" in Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan (Tokyo and New York: Kodansha, 1983).

External links[edit]