Norwegian Folktales

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Asbjornsen and Moe's Norske folkeeventyr 5th edition, 1874.

Norwegian Folktales (Norwegian: Norske Folkeeventyr) is a collection of Norwegian folktales and legends by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe. It is also known as Asbjørnsen and Moe, after the collectors.[1]

Asbjørnsen and Moe[edit]

Asbjørnsen, a teacher, and Moe, a minister, had been friends for about 15 years when in 1841 they published the first volume of folktales –[2] the collection of which had been an interest of both for some years. The work's popularity is partly attributable to Norway's newly won partial independence, and the wave of nationalism that swept the country in the 19th century; and the Norwegian written language they contributed to developing (i.e., what would become Bokmål); their language style struck a balance: it was a national language distinct from the Danish of their overlords, but more dignified and refined than the rustic rural dialect in pure form.[3][4][a]

Asbjørnsen and Moe was inspired by the German folktale collectors, the Brothers Grimm, not merely to emulate their methodology, but drawing encouragement by that their endeavor was a work of national importance,[4] especially as the Grimms openly gave high praise for the Norske folkeeventyr.[5] Asbjørnsen and Moe applying the principles espoused by the Grimms, for instance, using a simple linguistic style in place of dialects, while maintaining the original form of the stories.[citation needed] Moreover, Asbjørnsen and Moe did not publish collected folktales in the raw, but created "retold" versions, seeking to reconstruct the lost Urform of the tales—although the alterations performed were not as drastic as the Grimms sometimes allowed license for themselves.[6] The Norwegian pair also collected tales from the field themselves, in contrast to the Grimms.[7]

Publications[edit]

The original series, entitled Norske Folkeeventyr went into publication piecemeal. It first appeared a slim pamphlet (1841) offering a selection of a few tales, without a title page, the editor's names or table of contents. This was sufficiently well-received, and championed by P. A. Munch in a German newspaper.[4] It led to the appearance of a reprint of the first volume in 1843 and the second volume in 1844 as proper hardcovers. The second edition appeared in 1852.[8] Another series dubbed the "New Collection" appeared later (Norske Folke-Eventyr. Ny Samling 1871). The tales are numbered, the original collection containing 58 tales, increased to 60 tales in later editions. The new collection held 50 tales.

Asbjørnsen as a solo project collected and published Norske Huldre-Eventyr og Folkesagn I-II (1845–48),[1] which also was expanded by a "second collection,"(Norske huldre-eventyr og folkesagn: anden samling 1866).[9]

Illustrators[edit]

Cover art to 1914 edition, artist: Theodor Kittelsen

The first fully illustrated of these book was the 1879 edition of Asbjørnsen's Norske folke- og huldre-eventyr, which featured the artwork of a battery of artists: Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831−1892), Hans Gude (1825−1903), Vincent Stoltenberg Lerche (no), Eilif Peterssen (1852−1928), August Schneider (1842−1873), Otto Sinding (1842−1909), Adolph Tidemand (1814−1876), and Erik Werenskiold (1855−1938)

In later editions Werenskiold and Theodor Kittelsen became prominent illustrators.

Translation into English[edit]

The tales were first translated into English by Sir George Webbe Dasent. He translated all but a few of the tales from the two series of Norske Folkeeventyr. Dasent's Popular Tales from the Norse (1859), contains all 58 tales from the initial edition of the original collection.[b] Dasent's Tales from the Fjeld: A Second Series of Popular Tales (1874) covers the two tales from the original collection and 45 of the tales from the new collection.[c]

Asbjørnsen and Moe evidently approved of Dasent's translations: "In France and England collections have appeared in which our tales have not only been correctly and faultlessly translated, but even rendered with exemplary truth and care nay, with thorough mastery. The English translation, by George Webbe Dasent, is the best and happiest rendering of our tales that has appeared."

H. L. Braekstad, Round the Yule Log: Norwegian Folk and Fairy Tales (1881) includes tales from the Norske Huldre-Eventyr.[10] An abridged translation of Stroebe's Nordische Volksmärchen (1922), rendered into English by Martens, provides additional tales from the various collections, and complements the above translations to some extent. Pat Shaw Iversen and Carl Norman's Norwegian Folktales (1960) is a selection that includes some of the tales from the Ny Samling omitted by Dasent.[11]

List of Norwegian folktales[edit]

Norske Folkeeventyr[edit]

Legend:

  • "AM#" - Tale number as they appear in Asbjørnsen and Moe.
  • "Modern Norwegian Title" - Modernized spelling (conforms to Projekt Runeberg e-texts).
  • "AT index" - Aarne–Thompson classification system index for folktale type.
  • "Da#" - Tale number as appears in Dasent's translation, usable as sort key.
  • "Br." "Iv." "St-Ma" - the Braekstad, Iversen, and Stroebe-Martin translations.
Norske Folkeeventyr
AM# Modern Norwegian Title AT index Da# English translated title (Dasent) Alternate translations
1 Askeladden som stjal sølvendene til trollet AT 328 32 "Boots and the Troll"
2 Gjertrudsfuglen AT 751A 31 "Gertrude's Bird"
3 Fugl Dam AT 301J 55 "The Big Bird Dan"
4 Spurningen aka Prinsessen som ingen kunne målbinde AT 853 19 "Taming the Shrew" "The Princess who always had to have the Last Word " (Iv. 22)
5 Rike Per Kremmer AT 461 30 "Rich Peter the Pedlar"
6 Askeladden som kappåt med trollet AT 1000 5 "Boots Who Ate a Match With the Troll" "The Ash Lad Who Had an Eating Match with the Troll" (Iv. 4)
7 Gutten som gikk til nordenvinden og krevde igjen melet AT 563 34 "The Lad Who Went to the North Wind" "The Lad and the North Wind" (Br. 18)
8 Jomfru Maria som gudmor AT 710 27 "The Lassie and Her Godmother" "The Child of Mary" (St-Ma 10[12])
9 De tre prinsesser i Hvittenland AT 400 26 "The Three Princesses of Whiteland" "The Three Princesses in Whiteland" (St-Ma 17)
10 Somme kjerringer er slike AT 1384 24 "Not a Pin to Choose Between Them"
11 Hver synes best om sine barn AT 247 25 "One's Own Children Are Always Prettiest"
12 En frierhistorie AT 1459 14 "How One Went Out to Woo"
13 De tre mostrene AT 501 28 "The Three Aunts"
14 Enkesønnen AT 314 44 "The Widow's Son" (Br. 26)
15 Manndatteren og kjerringdatteren AT 480 17 "The Two Step-Sisters"
16 Hanen og høna i nøtteskogen AT 2021 54 "The Cock and Hen a-Nutting"
17 Bjørnen og reven: N/A (Bear and Fox stories)
17.1 Hvorfor bjørnen er stubbrumpet; AT 2 23 "Why the Bear Is Stumpy-Tailed"
17.2 Reven snyter bjørnen for julekosten AT 15 57 "Bruin and Reynard"
18 Gudbrand i Lia AT 1415 21 "Gudbrand on the Hill-side" "Gudbrand of the Hillside" (Iv. 9)
19 Kari Trestakk AT 510AB 50 "Katie Woodencloak" "Kari Woodencoat" (St-Ma 19)
20 Reven som gjeter AT 37 10 "The Fox as Herdsman"
21 Smeden som de ikke torde slippe inn i helvete AT 330 16 "The Master-Smith" "The Smith and the Devil" (Br. 14);"The Smith They Didn't Dare Let Into Hell" (Sehmsdorf)[13]
22 Hanen og høna AT 2075 15 "The Cock and Hen"
23 Hanen, gauken og århanen AT 120 29 "The Cock, the Cuckoo, and the Blackcock"
24 Lillekort AT 303 20 "Shortshanks"
25 Dukken i gresset AT 402 52 "Doll i' the Grass"
26 Pål Andrestua AT 1725 58 "Tom Totherhouse"
27 Soria Moria slott AT 400 56 "Soria Moria Castle" (Iv. 12, St-Ma 36)
28 Herreper AT 545B 42 "Lord Peter" "Squire Per" (Iv. 25)
29 Vesle Åse Gåsepike AT 870A 59 "Little Annie the Goose-Girl"
30 Gutten og fanden AT 1158 53 "The Lad and the Devil" "The Lad and the Devil" (Br. 4); "The Young Fellow and the Devil" (St-Ma 28)
31 De syv folene AT 471 43 "The Seven Foals"
32 Giske AT 1353 33 "Goosey Grizzel"
33 De tolv villender AT 451 8 "The Twelve Wild Ducks" "The Twelve Wild Ducks" (Iv. 15)
34 Mestertyven AT 1525A-F 35 "The Master Thief"
35 Høna tripper i berget AT 311 3 "The Old Dame and her Hen"
36 Risen som ikke hadde noe hjerte på seg AT 302 9 "The Giant Who Had No Heart in His Body" "The Giant who had no Heart" (Br. 7);

"Anent the Giant Who Did Not Have His Heart About Him" (St-Ma 16)

37 Grimsborken AT 531 40 "Dapplegrim"
38 Det har ingen nød med den som alle kvinnfolk er glad i AT 580 36 "The Best Wish"
39 Askeladden som fikk prinsessen til å løgste seg AT 852 7 "Boots Who Made the Princess Say, 'That's A Story'" "The Ash Lad who made the Princess Say "You're a Liar" " (Iv. 18); "Ashiepattle who made the Princess tell the Truth at last" (Br. 28)
40 De tre bukkene Bruse AT 122E 37 "The Three Billy-Goats Gruff" "The Three Billy Goats who went up into the Hills to get Fat" (Br. 15)
41 Østenfor sol og vestenfor måne AT 425 4 "East o' the Sun and West o' the Moon" (Br. 27); (St-Ma 22)
42 Høna som skulle til Dovre forat ikke allverden skulle forgå AT 20C 49 "The Cock and Hen That Went to the Dovrefell"
43 Mannen som skulle stelle hjemme AT 1408 39 "The Husband Who Was to Mind the House" "The Man who was going to Mind the House" (Br. 5)
44 Tommeliten AT 700 51 "Thumbikin"
45 Håken Borkenskjegg AT 900 6 "Hacon Grizzlebeard"
46 Mestermø AT 13 11 "The Mastermaid" "Master Girl" (Stroebe-Martens 15)
47 Vel gjort og ille lønnet AT 154 38 "Well Done and Ill Paid"
48 Tro og Utro AT 613 1 "True and Untrue"
49 Per, Pål og Espen Askeladd AT 577 46 "Boots and His Brothers"
50 Kvernen som står og maler på havsens bunn AT 565 2 "Why the Sea is Salt" "The Mill that Grinds at the bottom of the Sea" (Iv. 30)
51 Jomfruen på glassberget AT 530 13 "The Princess on the Glass Hill"
52 Smørbukk AT 327C 18 "Buttercup" "Smorbukk (Butterball)" (Iv. 11)
53 Store-Per og Vesle-Per AT 1535 47 "Big Peter and Little Peter"
54 Lurvehette AT 711 48 "Tatterhood"
55 Buskebrura AT 403 45 "Bushy Bride"
56 Kjetta på Dovre AT 1161 12 "The Cat on the Dovrefjell"
57 Bonde Værskjegg AT 325 41 "Farmer Weathersky"
58 Det blå båndet AT 590 22 "The Blue Belt"
59 Den rettferdige firskilling AT 1651 62 "The Honest Penny" "The Four-Shilling Piece" (Stroebe-Martens 12)[14]
60 Han far sjøl i stua AT 168A 66 "Father Bruin in the Corner"

Norske Folkeeventyr Ny Samling[edit]

NFE Ny Samling
AM# Modern Norwegian Title AT index Da# English translated title (Dasent) Alternate translations
61 Væren og grisen som skulle til skogs og bo for seg selv AT 130 101 "The Sheep and the Pig Who Set up House" "The Ram and the Pig who went into the Woods to live by Themselves" (Iv. 23)
62 Venner i liv og død AT 470 86 "Friends in Life and Death"
63 Gutten som skulle tjene tre år uten lønn AT 560 88 "Three Years without Wages" "The Youth Who Was to Serve Three Years Without Pay" (St-Ma 33)
64 Kjerringa mot strømmen AT 1365AB 94 "Goody Gainst-the-stream" "The Old Woman against the Stream"(Iv. 20)
65 Den syvende far i huset AT 726 87 "The Father of the Family" "The Seventh Father of the House" (Iv. 24); "The Seven Fathers in the House" (Br. 11)
66 Tre sitroner AT 408 84 "The Three Lemons" (St-Ma 3)
67 Kjæresten i skogen AT 955 97 "The Sweetheart in the Wood"
68 Ikke kjørende og ikke ridende AT 875 95 "How to Win a Prince" "Not Driving and not Riding" (Iv. 26)
69 Skipperen og Gamle-Erik AT 1179 93 "The Skipper and Old Nick" "The Skipper and Sir Urian" (St-Ma 32)
70 Gutten som gjorde seg til løve, falk og maur AT 302 96 "Boots and the Beasts" "The Boy Who Became a Lion, a Falcon, and an Ant"(Lunge-Larsen)[15]
71 Tobakksgutten AT 611 81 "Master Tobacco"
72 Gullslottet som hang i luften AT 531 102 "The Golden Palace That Hung in the Air" "The Golden Castle that Hung in the Air" (Iv. 6)
73 Haren som hadde vært gift AT 96 76 "The Hare and the Heiress" "The Hare who had been Married" (Iv. 14)
74 Bjørnen og reven: N/A The Bear and the Fox (Part of "Peter's Beast Stories")
74.1 Slipp granrot og ta i revefot AT 5 77 "Slip Root, Catch Reynard's Foot"
74.2 De vedder om flesk og humlebol AT 7 75 "Pork and Honey" "The Bear and the Fox Who Made a Bet" (Iv. 1)
74.3 De skulle ha åker i sameie AT 1030 79 "Bruin and Reynard Partners"
74.4 Mikkel vil smake hestekjøtt AT 47A 80 "Reynard Wants to Taste Horse-Flesh"
75 Bamse Brakar AT 116 78 "Bruin Goodfellow" "Brave Old Bruin" (Br. 12)
76 Rødrev og Askeladden AT 300 99 "Osborn Boots and Mr. Glibtongue"
77 Gutten som ville fri til datter til mor i kroken AT 402 104 "Mother Roundabout's Daughter" "The Youth Who Wanted to Win the Daughter of the Mother in the Corner" (St-Ma 34)
78 Dumme menn og troll til kjerringer AT 1406 90 "Silly Men and Cunning Wives" "Foolish Men and Scolding Wives" (Br. 22)
79 Askeladden og de gode hjelperne AT 513 106 "Boots and his Crew" "The Ash Lad and the Good Helpers" (Iv. 8)
80 Gutten som ville bli handelskar AT 1538 100 "This is the Lad who Sold the Pig"
81 Hårslå, som aldri ville hjem gå AT 2015 98 "How they Got Hairlock Home"
82 Kullbrenneren AT 1641 82 "The Charcoal Burner" (Br. 33)
83 Gullfuglen AT 550 110 "The Golden Bird " (Iv. 5)
84 Den grønne ridder AT 432 105 "The Green Knight"
85 Tyrihans som fikk kongsdatteren til å le AT 571 91 "Taper Tom" "Taper Tom - Who Made the Princess Laugh" (Iv. 28); "Hans who made the Princess Laugh" (Br. 30)
86 Presten og klokkeren AT 922 85 "The Priest and the Clerk" "The Parson and the Sexton" (St-Ma 31, Iv. 21); "The Parson and the Clerk" (Br. 23)
87 Gale-Mattis AT 1696 108 "Silly Matt"
88 Klokkeren i bygda vår AT 1537 89 "Our Parish Clerk"
89 Småguttene som traff trollene på Hedalsskogen AT 303 92 "The Trolls in Hedale Wood" "The Boys Who Met the Trolls in the Hedal Woods" (Iv. 13); "The Lads who Met the Trolls in the Hedale Wood" (Br. 2)
90 Kvitebjørn kong Valemon AT 425 109 "King Valemon, the White Bear" Valemon - The White Bear King (Iv. 16)
91 Skrinet med det rare i AT 2250 83 "The Box with Something Pretty in It" "The Box with the Funny Thing in it" (Br. 25)
92 Hjemmusa og fjellmusa AT 112 107 "The Town-mouse and the Fell-mouse" "The House Mouse and the Country Mouse" (Iv. 19)
93 God dag, mann! -- Økseskaft AT 1968J 68 "Goodman Axehaft" "'Good Day, Fellow!' 'Axe Handle!'" (Iv. 7)
94 Hanen og reven AT 61 67 "Reynard and Chanticleer "
95 Verden lønner ikke annerledes AT 155 73 "The Way of the World"
96 Mumle Gåsegg AT 650A 65 "Grumblegizzard" "The Greedy Youngster" (Br. 10); "Murmur Goose-egg"(St-Ma 23)
97 Veslefrikk med fela AT 592 103 "Little Freddy With his Fiddle" "Little Freddie and his Fiddle" (Iv. 10)
98 Gjete kongens harer AT 570 60 "Osborn's Pipe" "Ashiepattle and the King's Hares" (Br. 19): "The King's Hares" (St-Ma 25)
99 Krambugutten med gammelostlasten AT 506 70 "The Shopboy and His Cheese"
100 Følgesvennen AT 507A 69 "The Companion" "The Companion" (Iv. 2); "The Comrade" (St-Ma 6)
101 no AT 1542 71 "Peik" (Br. 21)
102 Kjetta som var så fæl til å ete AT 2027 64 "The Greedy Cat" The Cat Who Could Eat So Much (St-Ma 21)
103 Hanen som falt i bryggekaret AT 2022 63 "The Death of Chanticleer"
104 Pannekaken AT 2025 74 "The Pancake" (Br. 8); "The Chronicle of the Pancake" (St-Ma 35)
105 Gutten med øldunken AT 332 72 "Death and the Doctor"
106 Fanden og futen AT 1186 N/A N/A "The Devil and the Baliff" (Iv. 3)
107 Stabbursnøkkelen i rokkehodet AT 1453 N/A N/A "The Key in the Distaff" (Iv. 29)
108 Tsju pus, vil du ned av bordet! AT 1456 N/A N/A (Shoo cat, off the table)
109 Sju år gammal graut AT 1462 N/A N/A (Seven year-old porridge)
110 Herremannsbruden AT 1440 N/A N/A "The Squire's Bride" (Iv. 27)

Norske Huldre-Eventyr[edit]

Legend:

  • "Hu#" - Tale number in Norske Huldre-Eventyr (1845–48), with continuous numbering for the "second collection" (1866)
  • "Modern Norwegian Title" - Modernized spelling (conforms to Projekt Runeberg e-texts).
  • "Year" - Year of collection
  • "Br#" - Tale number as appears in Braekstad's Round the Yule Log.
  • "Br." "Iv." "St-Ma" - the Braekstad, Iversen, and Stroebe-Martin translations.
Huldre-Eventyr Part 1
Hu# Modern Norwegian Title Year Br# English translated title (Braekstad) Alternate translations
Hu1 Kvernsagn (cf. Kvernknurr (no)) 1843 17 "Legends of the Mill" "The Haunted Mill" (first tale and a composite of the second and third tales, Dasent); "Self Did It" (second tale, Stroebe-Martens 14)
Hu2 Ekebergkongen 1838
Hu3 Matthias skytters historier 1838 3 "Matthias the Hunter's Stories"
Hu4 Berthe Tuppenhaugs fortellinger 1843 13 "Mother Bertha's Stories" "The Troll Wedding" (partial)[16]
Hu5 En aftenstund i et proprietærkjøkken 1845 29 "An Evening in the Squire's Kitchen" "The Troll-Wife" (St-Ma 24[17])
Hu6 Huldreætt 1843
Hu7 En halling med kvannerot 1845
Hu8 Lundeætten 1845
Hu9 En gammeldags juleaften 1843 1 "Ax Old-Fashioned Christmas Eve"
Hu10 En natt i Nordmarken 1845 "The Neighbor Underground" (St-Ma 4[18])
Hu11 En aften ved Andelven 1845 "The Hat of the Huldres" (St-Ma 8[19])
Hu12 Graverens fortellinger 1845
Hu13 Jutulen og Johannes Blessom 1844 24 "The Giant and Johannes Blessom" "The Lord of the Hill and John Blessom" (St-Ma 27)
Hu14 Fra fjellet og seteren 1845
Huldre-Eventyr Part 2
Hu# Modern Norwegian Title Year Br# English translated title (Braekstad) Alternate translations
Hu11 Høyfjellsbilleder: 1848
Hu11.1 1: En søndagskveld til seters "Ola Storbaekkjen" (Stroebe-Martens 20)
Hu11.2 2: Rensdyrjakt ved Rondane 16 "Peter Gynt"
Hu12 Plankekjørerne 1848
Hu13 En tiurleik i Holleia 1848 9 "A Day with the Capercailzies"
Hu14 En signekjerring 1848 32 "The Witch"
Hu15 En sommernatt på Krokskogen 1848 31 A Summer Night in a Norwegian Forest
Hu16 Tatere 1848
Hu17 En aften i nabogården 1853
Hu18 Fra Sognefjorden 1855
Hu19 Til Haus
Hu19.1 Skarvene fra Utrøst 1849 6 "The Cormorants of Udröst" "The Isle of Udrost" (St-Ma 2)
Hu19.2 Tuftefolket på Sandflesa 1851 "Lucky Andrew" (St-Ma 30)
Hu19.3 Makrelldorg 1851 20 "Mackerel Trolling" "Storm Magic" (St-Ma 11 [20])
Hu19.4 På høyden av Aleksandria 1852 "Hexe Pfarrerin" (Stroebe, (German)[d])

Other pieces[edit]

From other works
# Modern Norwegian Title Year AT Motif English translated title (various) Alternate translations
* De tre kongsdøtre i berget det blå (from Eventyrbog for Børn 1883-1887, Asbjørnsen and Moltke Moe edd.) "The Three Princesses in the Mountain in the Blue" (Iv. 31)
* En prestehistorie (from «Dybwads illustrerte Folkekalender 1881», Moltke Moe.)
* Prinsessen som ingen kunne målbinde (no) (from Eventyrbog for Barn 1883-1887, Asbjørnsen og Moltke Moe edd.) AT 853 "The Princess who always had to have the Last Word " (Iv. 22)
* En vestlandsk Skovdal (from "Fra nordiske Digtere. Et Album" 1869)
* Fiskersønnene (from «Dybwads illustrerte Folkekalender 1881») AT 303
* Grisen og levemåten hans (from Barne-Eventyr 1909, Moltke Moe ed.) AT 211 "The Pig and his Way of Life" (Kari B. Svendsen, 1985)[21]
* Gullfebla (from Juletræet for 1850
* Jomfru Maria og svalen (from Eventyrbog for Barn 1883-1337. Asbjørnsen and Moltke Moe edd.)

Footnotes[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the same time the language in the tales also contained many words from Norwegian dialects, which helped toward making a hybrid of older Danish and eastern Norwegian dialects in particular, a language variant that was developed in stages into today's Norwegian bokmål, or "book tongue." Through the later 1800s and the 1900s, bokmål became less Danish through language reforms, and the language of Asbjørnsen and Moe's folk tales followed suit. Their language has been modernized many times. Also, many of these tales were published by Det Norske Samlaget in 1995 in New Norwegian, the most distinctly Norwegian of the two official variants of written Norwegian, and in many cases the language form that comes closest to the tales as recorded by Asbjørnsen and Moe.
  2. ^ Dasent splits the two subtales of Bjørnen og reven into 2 independent tales, which brings his tale count to 59.
  3. ^ Dasent's Tales from the Fjeld" count 51 tales = 2 original collection + 45 new collection + 3 (counts Bjørnen og reven as 4 separate bear and fox stories) + 1 (The Haunted Mill which is "Kværensagn" taken from Asbjornsen's "Norske Huldre-Eventyr og Folkesagn")
  4. ^ Huldreeventyr, I, 281, beginning "Det var en Praestegaard i en Bygd ved Christianesand"

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Asbjörnsen, Peter Christen". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  2. ^ "[Moe] met Asbjørnsen first when he was fourteen years of age."[1] so 1827.
  3. ^ "One of the reasons the Asbjørnsen and Moe corpus received such national acclaim..neither Danish, nor rural dialect" Rudvin, Mette (c. 1999), Norske Folkeeventyr. A Polysystemic Approach to Folk Literature in Nineteenth-Century Norway (pdf) 
  4. ^ a b c Wells & 2013 35–36
  5. ^ “[Asbjørnsen and Moe’s] end product so appealed to Jacob Grimm that he described them as the best Märchen in print” (Dorson, Richard (1964), "Preface", in Christiansen, R. Th., Folktales of Norway, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, p. x , cited in Rudvin 1999?, p. 25n
  6. ^ Rudvin 1999?, pp. 25–26
  7. ^ Rudvin 1999?, p. 26n
  8. ^ Rudvin 1999?, p. 41
  9. ^ Asbjørnsen, Peter Christen, ed. (1870). Norske huldre-eventyr og folkesagn: anden samling (3 ed.). Christiania: P.J. Steensballes Forlag. 
  10. ^ Braekstad 1881
  11. ^ Iversen 1990 [1960]
  12. ^ Stroebe & Martens 1922, p. 56
  13. ^ Sehmsdorf, Henning K. (1986). "The Smith They Didn't Dare Let Into Hel". Short Stories from Norway, 1850-1900 publisher=Department of Scandinavian Studies, University of Wisconsin. pp. 6–. 
  14. ^ Stroebe & Martens 1922, p. 69. "The Honest Four-Shilling Piece" is the verbatim title given in footnote.
  15. ^ Lunge-Larsen, Lise (translator) (1999). The Troll With no Heart in His Body. HMH Books for Young Readers. ISBN 0395913713. 
  16. ^ Huldreeventyr, I, 50, Signekjærrings Fortrællinger, beginning:"Det var en sommer for lang, lang tid sia, de låg til seters med krøttera fra Melbustad oppe på Halland.."
  17. ^ Huldreeventyr, I, 77" beginning "For mange Aar siden.. bøede der et Par gamle vestaaende Folk paa en Gaard oppe paa Hadeland"
  18. ^ Huldreeventyr, I, S. 149, En Nut i Nordmarken from passage beginning: "Der var en bonde, han boede i Thelemarken,..")
  19. ^ Huldreeventyr, I, 157, from passage beginning: "Det var et stort Bryllup i en Gaard.., p. 150 of
  20. ^ Huldreeventyr, I, 248 beginning "Han havde faretmed en Skipper som Youngmand hele Sommeren"
  21. ^ Svendsen, Kari B. (1985). Tales of the Norsemen : folk tales collected by Asbjorsen and Moe, selected and retold by. Gyldendal Norsk Forlag. pp. 9–. ISBN 8205163375. 

References[edit]

texts
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External links[edit]

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