Ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam

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English version of the slogan at rally in Tahrir Square.

Ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām (Arabic: الشعب يريد إسقاط النظامpronounced [æʃˈʃaʕb juˈriːd ʔɪsˈqɑːtˤ ˌænniˈðˤɑːm], "the people want to bring down the regime") is a political slogan associated with the Arab Spring.[1][2] The slogan first emerged during the Tunisian Revolution.[3] The chant echoed at Avenue Habib Bourguiba in Tunis for weeks.[2] The slogan also became used frequently during the 2011 Egyptian revolution.[4][5][6][7] It was the most frequent slogan, both in graffiti and in chants in rallies, during the revolution in Egypt.[8]

The chant was raised at the protests in Bahrain.[7][9][10] Ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam has been used frequently in protests across Yemen.[11][12] The slogan was used in rallies across Libya at the beginning of the 2011 revolt.[13] In March 2011, a group of youths under the age of 15 were arrested in Dera'a in southern Syria, after having sprayed ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam graffiti. Their arrests sparked the uprising in Syria.[14][15] The slogan was also used frequently in Sudan throughout the protests.[16]

In Jordan, a youth group named "24 March" used the slogan ash-shaʻb yurīd islah an-niẓām ("the people want to reform the system").[17] However, the slogan has switched into ash-shab yurid isqat an-nizam, since November 2012, when the government has imposed a hike in the price of fuel.[18]

In Lebanon the slogan has been used in protests against that country's sectarian political system.[19] In the Lebanese protests, an-nizam ("the regime") referred to the sectarian political order as such, rather the government.[20] In Palestine, a variation of the slogan, Ash-shaʻb yurīd inhāʼ al-inqisām (Arabic: الشعب يريد إنهاء الانقسام‎, "the people want the division to end"), emerged in protests calling for the two main factions Fatah and Hamas to settle their differences.[21] A parody of the slogan has been used by Bashar al-Assad's supporters in Syria as ash-shaʻb yurīd Bashār al-Asad (Arabic: الشعب يريد بشار الاسد‎ "the people want Bashar al-Assad").[22] Another parody of the slogan has been used by King Hamad's loyalist in Bahrain as ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ al-Wifāq ("the people want to bring down Al-Wefaq"), referring to the main opposition party of Bahrain, Al-Wefaq.[23]

Syrian Islamists have appropriated the slogan for their own purposes, altering it to “The People want the declaration of Jihad” (ash-sha’ab yurīd i’lān al-Jihād), as well as "The Ummah wants an Islamic Caliphate" (al-Ummah turīd khilāfah islāmiyyah).[24]

In post-Mubarak Egypt, given the fact that the military government only partially met the demands of the revolutionaries, with the dreaded state of emergency remaining in place, some protesters started using a somewhat different version of the slogan: The people want to bring down the field marshal, referring to Field Marshal Mohamed Tantawi, the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.[25]

Uriel Abulof, professor of politics at Tel-Aviv University and a senior research fellow at Princeton University, commented:

Virtually all English renditions of the uprising's call missed its singular, key letter: "The people wants to bring down the regime." This seeming semantics marks a sea-change in political ethics. For in the two long centuries since Napoleon landed in Alexandria, the moral foundation of modern politics -- popular sovereignty -- has been absent from the Arab Middle East. The Arab people became the object for colonizers, dictators and imams, with their call to submission and arms. Never a subject for thought and action, the people lacked political agency, powerless to forge a collective moral self, let alone a nation to demand self-determination: the right to tell right from wrong in the public sphere.

Whether Arab popular uprisings will eventually transform political systems -- thus nominally qualified as real revolutions -- remains to be seen. But one revolution is real and clear: the people (شعب, sha'ab) was born -- a collective, rather than a collection, of individuals, a whole greater than the sum of its parts. The uprising's slogan was not simply, as one might have expected, "down with the regime." It is precisely because the demonstrates felt that the existence of such a people, let alone one in possession of agency, is far from obvious, that they added, in a resolute speech-act -- an act created by speech -- "the people wants."[26]

Benoît Challand, teaching Middle Eastern politics at the University of Bologna, commented on the slogan in the following way:

The rendering of autonomy in Arabic illustrates my point as the term is translated as tasayyir daati [sic] – that is the "self-impulse," or "self-drive." And indeed, once the initial spark was lit, it was as if the Tunisian people moved as a whole, into spontaneous protests. Egyptian, Libyan, and Yemeni people called for the fall of their respective regime. The slogan "ash-sha’b yourid isqat al-nithaam" [the people want the fall of the regime], appearing across the region, captures this social cohesion (the people) and the unity in the project.[27]

Rashid Khalidi, the Edward Said professor of Arab studies at Columbia University and the editor of the Journal of Palestine Studies, commented in the following manner:

It will largely be determined in these streets, as well as in the internet cafes, and in the union halls, newspaper offices, women's groups and private homes of millions of young Arabs who have served notice as publicly as possible that they will no longer tolerate being treated with the contempt and disrespect their governments have shown them for their entire lives. They have put us all on notice with their slogan: "The people want the fall of the regime." They are not only referring to their corrupt governments; they also mean the old regime that has prevailed for decades in the entire Arab world, from the Atlantic to the Gulf.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Arab Awakening". Al Jazeera English. 4 April 2011. Archived from the original on 12 April 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Ertuna, Can (15 February 2011). "The regime is overthrown, what now?". Hürriyet. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Khalidi, Rashid (24 February 2011). "Reflections on the revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt". The Middle East Channel. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  4. ^ Beach, Alastair (1 February 2011). "EXCLUSIVE: On the streets of Cairo". The Spectator. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  5. ^ Mackey, Robert (4 February 2011). "Updates on Day 11 of Egypt Protests". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  6. ^ Shadid, Anthony (31 January 2011). "In Crowd’s Euphoria, No Clear Leadership Emerges". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  7. ^ a b Safty, Adel (28 February 2011). "18 Days That Shook Egypt". Gulf News. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  8. ^ Escobar, Pepe (2 February 2011). "The Brotherhood Factor". Asia Times. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  9. ^ "Bahrain Protestors Take Over Key Junction". Financial Times. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  10. ^ "Bahrain Unrest: Thousands join anti-government protest". BBC. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  11. ^ "Sa’ada Rallies Repeat "The people want the fall of the regime"". National Yemen. 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  12. ^ Ghobari, Mohammed; Abdullah, Khaled (17 February 2011). "Yemen protesters flee armed government loyalists". Reuters. Yahoo! News. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  13. ^ El Gharbi, Jalel (21 February 2011). "The fall of Qaddafi’s throne". Babelmed. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  14. ^ Sinjab, Lina (19 March 2011). "Middle East Unrest: Silence broken in Syria". BBC. Archived from the original on 24 March 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  15. ^ Fadel, Leila (25 March 2011). "After deadly crackdown, a test of wills looms in Syria". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  16. ^ http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=52995
  17. ^ Sadiki, Larbi (29 February 2012). "En passant in Jordan: The king's dilemma". Al-Jazeera English. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  18. ^ "Jordan protesters call for "downfall of the regime"". Reuters. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  19. ^ Barker, Anne (7 March 2011). "Beirut Protesters Demand End to Sectarianism". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  20. ^ Constantine, Zoe (9 March 2011). "No sects, please, we're Lebanese, say campaigners for secular state". The National. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  21. ^ Abu Toameh, Khaled (15 March 2011). "Palestinians Demand: 'We want to end the division'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  22. ^ "حشد مليوني في قلب العاصمة دمشق يهتف بصوت واحد: الشعب يريد بشار الأسد". al-Intiqad. 
  23. ^ http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Middle-East/2012/Feb-22/164239-bahrain-sunnis-warn-government-over-dialogue-at-rally.ashx#axzz1nwuxNAKc
  24. ^ "What do the people want? Dissection of the Arab Spring slogan". Tabeer. 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  25. ^ Evan Hill (30 June 2011). "Scorecard: Egypt's army and the revolution". Al-Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011. 
  26. ^ Abulof, Uriel (3 October 2011). "What Is the Arab Third Estate?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 29 September 2013. 
  27. ^ Challand, Benoit (2 March 2011). "The Counter-Power of Civil Society in the Middle East". Deliberately Considered. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 

See also[edit]

El pueblo unido jamás será vencido

External links[edit]