Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians
|Ashkali flag (Matica Aškalija, Amëza e Ashkalive), designed in 1999 by Abedin Toplica.|
|Regions with significant populations|
| Kosovo 15,436 Ashkali + 11,524 Balkan Egyptians (2011 census)[a]
|Related ethnic groups|
In the Balkans, the Ashkali (also Hashkali, Aškalije (Ашкалије), Haškalije (Хашкалије)) and Egyptians (Balkan Egyptians, Jevgs, Egjiptjant or Gjupci) are Albanian-speaking ethnic minorities (recognized communities) of Kosovo and Albania. Observers[who?] consider them Albanized Romanies, but they do not self-identify as such. Prior to the Kosovo War of 1999, Albanized Roma registered themselves as Albanians. Now they are divided by identifying with two different groups, although the people share a culture, traditions and language (Albanian).[not in citation given]
During the Kosovo War, Albanized Roma were displaced as refugees in Albania and the Republic of Macedonia. Albanized Roma formed the Ashkali as an ethnic group in 1999, as they tried to show their pro-Albanian stance and distinguish themselves from the Roma. The latter were considered to be pro-Serbian during the war and thus opposed by the Albanians. Many of the Albanized Roma were then sent to refugee camps with Roma, with whom they did not share the same language and customs.[not in citation given]
Albanized Roma formed the ethnic group known as the Egyptians to distance themselves from other Roma in Macedonia. The ethnic identity was adopted by Albanized Roma in Kosovo who wanted to separate themselves both from other Roma and Albanians.
The name "Ashkali" comes from the Turkish root-word As (Has). It was earlier applied to sedentary Roma who settled in Albanian areas during Ottoman Empire times. The Ashkalija speak Albanian as their first language. Ashkalija often worked as blacksmiths, or manual laborers on Ottoman estates. Ashkalija are found mainly in eastern and central Kosovo.
A 14th-century reference to a placename (Агѹповы клѣти, Agupovy klěti) in the Rila Charter of Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria is thought to be related to the Balkan Egyptians according to some authors, such as Konstantin Josef Jireček.
In 1990, an Egyptian association was formed in Ohrid, Macedonia. During the Kosovo War, Albanized Roma were displaced as refugees in Albania and the Republic of Macedonia. Many Ashkali fought in the Kosovo Liberation Army. Albanized Roma formed the ethnic group Ashkali after the end of the war in 1999, to show their pro-Albanian stance and distinguish themselves from the Roma, who had been negatively viewed as pro-Serbian during the war. Many Albanized Roma were also sent to refugee camps with other Roma, with whom they did not share the same language and customs. As the majority of Kosovo (or Albanized) Roma, many Ashkali refugees settled in Serbia and Montenegro. There they were identified as Romano-Palestinians. The first Ashkali party (Democratic Party of the Ashkali Albanians of Kosovo) was formed in 2000 under Sabit Rrahmani, who supported Kosovo independence in the name of all Ashkali.
Most Ashkali and Egyptians live in Kosovo and Republic of Macedonia, but the peoples also reside in Albania, Serbia and Montenegro. In the Macedonian census of 2002, 3,713 people self-identified as "Egyptian". In the Serbian census of 2002 (excluding Kosovo), 814 people self-identified as "Egyptian". In the Montenegrin census, 225 people self-identified as "Egyptian" or "Palestinian Judas" from Ashkelon.
Ashkali are predominant in the central and eastern regions of Kosovo: Uroševac, Kosovo Polje and Lipljan. Egyptians live in western Kosovo: in Đakovica, Istok, Peć and Dečani. The Ashkali/Egyptian community of Kosovo had 98% unemployment in 2009.
While Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptians claim ethnic differences among them, they frequently intermarry. But, overall marriages between Roma and non-Roma (Gadje, outsiders) are extremely rare. Egyptians, Roma, and Ashkalija do not classify one another as Gadje.
The Ashkali and Roma claim the Egyptians as their own; whereas the Ashkali and Egyptians dispute over each other's background. No television or radio channels are dedicated to Askhali or Egyptian minority audiences.
Both ethnic groups speak Albanian as their first language.
See also 
|a.||^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 99 out of 193 United Nations member states.|
- Dragan Novaković, Potomci faraona u Srbiji, DT Magazin, 4. April 1998.
- Marushiakova, Elena et al.Identity Formation among Minorities in the Balkans: The cases of Roms, Egyptians and Ashkali in Kosovo, Sofia: Minority Studies Society (Studii Romani), 2001
- Abedin Toplica: "Flamuri Kombëtar i Ashkalive / Zastava Aškalija / The National Flag", Ashkali Horizonti, nr. 2, 2003 www.ashkali.org.yu "The flag is red with a black rising eagle in front of a green disk. The red and black color are similar to the Albanian flag. The green disk represent[s] Islam"
- Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији: Становништво према националној припадности - „Oстали“ етничке заједнице са мање од 2000 припадника и двојако изјашњени
- "NEW ETHNIC IDENTITIES IN THE BALKANS: THE CASE OF THE EGYPTIANS"
- Даскалова, Ангелина; Мария Райкова (2005). Грамоти на българските царе (in Bulgarian). София: Академично издателство "Марин Дринов". p. 57.
- Trubeta, Sevasti (March 2005). "Balkan Egyptians and Gypsy/Roma Discourse" (PDF). Nationalities Papers 33 (1): pp. 71–95. doi:10.1080/00905990500053788.
- Memorandum of the Society for Threatened People on the Issue of Lead Poisoning of Roma in IDP Camps in Kosovo, GFBV.
- NEW ETHNIC IDENTITIES IN THE BALKANS: THE CASE OF THE EGYPTIANS
- Differences of prejudices and collective blames toward to the Balkan’s Egyptians
- Egjiptianëve Kosovarë
- Union of Balkan's Egyptians
- The New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo (Iniciativa e re Demokrarike e Kosovës)
- New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo, based in Switzerland
- Minority Rights Group