Ashot Nadanian

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Ashot Nadanian
Ashot Nadanian chess singapore.jpg
Full name Աշոտ Նադանյան
Country Armenia
Born (1972-09-19) September 19, 1972 (age 42)
Baku, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, USSR
Title International Master
Peak rating 2475 (July 1997)

Ashot Nadanian (sometimes transliterated as Nadanyan; Armenian: Աշոտ Նադանյան; Russian: Ашот Наданян; born September 19, 1972) is an Armenian chess International Master (1997), chess theoretician and chess coach.

His highest achievements have been in opening theory and coaching. Two opening variations are named after him: the Nadanian Variation in the Grünfeld Defence and the Nadanian Attack in the Queen's Pawn Opening. He began coaching at the age of 22 and has brought up three grandmasters. He has coached the national teams of Kuwait and Singapore and was awarded the titles Honoured Coach of Armenia in 1998 and FIDE Trainer in 2007. Since 2011, he has been a permanent second of Levon Aronian.

Although a strong player who competed in the 1996 Chess Olympiad and narrowly failed to qualify for the 1999 FIDE World Chess Championship, he has never fulfilled his potential. According to Valery Chekhov, Nadanian "possesses enormous chess potential, but he was not able to find enough time to work professionally on his chess." Levon Aronian said that due to the situation in Armenia, Nadanian "was not able to display even one-tenth of his playing talent."[1]

Due to his imaginative attacking style, Nadanian has been described as a "brilliant eccentric", the "Armenian Tal" and "Kasparov's half-brother".[2] The sixth chapter of Tibor Karolyi's 2009 book Genius in the Background is devoted to Nadanian.

Early years[edit]

Nadanian was born on 19 September 1972[3] in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, which then was part of the Soviet Union, to Sergei and Irina, both hairdressers.[4] He was taught to play chess by his father when he was seven. His early coach was Rafael Sarkisov, who took him on as a pupil at Spartak in Baku.[5] In his article The Voiceless Old Man Nadanian recollects, that when he was nine or ten there were almost no chess tournaments in which young players could play with seniors and therefore he often went to the park near his house to play chess with older chess lovers. He remembers that in one of these park-battles he played against a mysterious, silent stranger who turned out to be the highly respected chess champion Vladimir Makogonov.[6] In 1986 and 1987 Nadanian won the under-sixteen Azerbaijani championship. With the beginning of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1988, his family was forced to leave Baku and flee to Armenia.[5]

Chess career[edit]

Nadanian played in the Soviet Union Junior Chess Championships of 1987,[7] 1988[8] and 1989,[9] in the Armenian Chess Championships of 1997, 1998 and 1999 (7th–8th places),[10][11] in the 32nd Chess Olympiad in Yerevan 1996,[12] in the 13th European Chess Club Cup 1997,[13] in the Zonal tournament in Panormo 1998, where he shared 7th–11th places out of 72 participants,[14] in the European Individual Chess Championships of 2000[15] and 2014[16] and in the FIDE World Rapid and Blitz Championships 2013 in Khanty-Mansiysk.[17] In 2014, playing board 4, he helped his team BKMA Yerevan to a silver medal in the Armenian Team Chess Championship.[18]

His other performances:

Playing strength and style[edit]

Nadanian reached his best Elo rating in July 1997 with 2475 Elo points.[36] His best single performance was at Moscow Aeroflot Open, 2002, where he scored five of nine possible points (56%), exceeding his first grandmaster norm by half a point.[37] His second norm came at Moscow 2004, where he scored eight points out of eleven with a performance rating of 2630.[38]

Nadanian has an imaginative and adventurous style of playing, and even his mistakes, according to Tibor Karolyi, "contain elements of creativity".[39] He likes to create fresh, atypical positions straight from the opening, often employing bizarre maneuvers to achieve his goals. Uncommon chess openings have always been a part of his repertoire (e.g. Sokolsky Opening, Budapest Gambit).[40]

Kingpin magazine called him "a brilliant eccentric".[41] Tibor Karolyi devoted a chapter to him in his 2009 book Genius in the Background and jokingly called him "Kasparov's Half-Brother", as Kasparov and Nadanian were both coached by Alexander Shakarov, and there were similarities in their playing styles. In particular, Karolyi emphasizes their ability to implement effective ideas on the edge of the board, attributing this to the influence of their common chess "father".[42] As an example of flank pawn advances versus a solid centre, John L. Watson in his 2003 book Chess Strategy in Action brings attention to the game Nadanian – Ponomariov, Kiev 1997[43] and calls it "almost satire on rule-breaking", as nine of White's first thirteen moves have been pawn moves and only one of those has been with a central pawn, yet Black's position was extremely difficult.[44]

The 2005 World Cup winner Levon Aronian said of Nadanian: "His passion for beauty, his devotion to the romantic chess school has always been inspiring." Grandmaster Valery Chekhov noted that "along with his positive qualities like very subtle understanding of dynamic positions, very good sense of initiative and quick thinking, Ashot’s play has a few negative facets like weak opening repertoire, bad defence, and the psychological element of the game as well."[1]

Chess theoretician[edit]

Grünfeld Defence, Nadanian Variation
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
e7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
g6 black pawn
d5 black knight
a4 white knight
d4 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
e2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white king
f1 white bishop
g1 white knight
h1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.Na4

Nadanian has contributions to opening theory, with two variations named after him: the Nadanian Variation in the Grünfeld Defence (after the moves 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.Na4)[45][46] and the Nadanian Attack in the Queen's Pawn Opening (after the moves 1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 h6 3.c4 g5).[47][48] The first variation has been used by many strong GMs such as Viktor Korchnoi, Bu Xiangzhi, Walter Browne, Smbat Lputian, Jonathan Rowson, Andrei Kharlov, Bogdan Lalić, Igor Lysyj, while the second has never enjoyed popularity among top-flight players.[40]

Described by John Donaldson as "the ever inventive creator of novelties",[49] he has made a number of other notable innovations, including:

  • 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Be7 4.Nf3 Nf6 5.Bf4 0–0 6.e3 c5 7.dxc5 Bxc5 8.Qc2 Nc6 9.a3 Qa5 10.Ra2;[50]
  • 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6 4.g3 Ba6 5.b3 Bb4+ 6.Bd2 Be7 7.Bg2 c6 8.Bc3 d5 9.Ne5 Nfd7 10.Nd3;[51]
  • 1.c4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.g3 e4 5.Ng5 Ng4.[52]

Nadanian has contributed analysis to many chess publications throughout the world including the Chess Informant, New In Chess Yearbook, 64, Kaissiber and Szachy Chess.[53][54][55][56][57] He is a columnist for the Chessville.com website[58] and has also written for ChessBase[59] and the Armenian Chess Academy website.[60]

Chess coach and second[edit]

After Nadanian graduated from the Armenian State Institute of Physical Culture in 1994, he became a chess trainer.[5] At 26 he became the youngest Honoured Coach of Armenia.[61] Among his students are Grandmasters Gabriel Sargissian,[1] Varuzhan Akobian[62] and Davit G. Petrosian.[10] He has also occasionally helped GM Tigran L. Petrosian.[63]

"Ashot played an important role in shaping me as a chess player – and not only in that. The level of my play had fallen back considerably when I started to train with him in 1997. I think back with a smile on my face how impatiently after the first lesson I waited for the next session. I got the impression that I had rediscovered our game. Ashot is a born trainer."

Gabriel Sargissian, twice Olympic gold medalist.[1]

From December 1999 until August 2001, Nadanian worked as the National Team Coach of Kuwait.[64] Between 2005 and 2010, he was the National Coach of Singapore Men's Team.[65] In 2007, he was awarded the title of FIDE Trainer.[66]

At the "Full English Breakfast" website (thefeb.com, podcast #7 Part 1), Levon Aronian refers to Nadanian as his friend and second. Unable to accompany Aronian to the 2011 Wijk aan Zee tournament, they maintained daily contact online.[67] During the entire month of February 2011, Nadanian, together with a team of five grandmasters—Wang Hao, Movsesian, Sargissian, Pashikian and Melkumyan—held training camp in Tsaghkadzor, helping Aronian to prepare for the Candidates Tournament of the World Chess Championship 2012 cycle.[68] At the 2011 Crestbook KC-Conference Aronian noted: "Lots of players are involved in my team, but Ashot Nadanian is absolutely irreplaceable. Besides the work he does himself he manages the whole process, while also planning training sessions."[69] During the Tata Steel Chess Tournament 2012 in Wijk aan Zee Aronian referred to Nadanian as his permanent assistant.[70]

Nadanian once said in an interview that one of the joyful events of his life was the ending of the Turin Olympiad in 2006, when his student Sargissian became Olympic champion with the Armenian team and his other student Akobian won bronze with the U.S. team. At the next Olympiad in Dresden the story repeated itself: Sargissian won team gold medal and Akobian won team bronze.[5]

Personal life[edit]

Seven knights construction (2009)
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
d8 white knight
c7 black knight
e7 black knight
b6 white knight
d6 black king
f6 white knight
c5 black knight
e5 black knight
d1 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Black has material advantage and turn to move, but must allow mate on the next move due to zugzwang.

Other chess activities and hobbies[edit]

One of Nadanian's hobbies along with reading, watching classical piano performances and writing aphorisms[71] is chess composition. His first puzzle appeared in 1986 and since that time he has composed about fifty studies and puzzles, of which he considers only ten or twelve to be good. He is particularly attracted by the problems, where in a final position White wins with a king and knights only.[72] Whilst two knights cannot force checkmate against a lone king, they can do so in some exceptional cases when the defender has pawns or other pieces.[73] This idea is most clearly embodied in the highly original Nadanian's problem with seven knights (see diagram). In December 2009, ChessBase published three of Nadanian's puzzles on "knights theme", calling him "a hippophile chess composer".[74]

A chess book collector, Nadanian has a private library of more than a thousand volumes.[5] He also plays correspondence chess.[75][76]

Family[edit]

Nadanian lives in Yerevan.[3] He married Evelina Zakharian since 1999, and they have a daughter Kiti (born 2004 in Moscow) and a son Vigen (born 2010 in Singapore).[5] When asked in an interview whether being a father negatively affects his chess career, Nadanian replied, "I do not know, but even if that would be true, I'll never be sorry. Kiti and Vigen are more important to me than all my chess achievements put together."[5]

Relationships[edit]

In the same interview Nadanian said that he has "perfect relations with virtually all Armenian top players", stressing that the closest are Levon Aronian, Gabriel Sargissian, Ara Minasian, Varuzhan Akobian and Andranik Matikozian. Nadanian also said that during the Linares Open of 1998 his friend Levon Aronian joked that Nadanian ate cat food. When in 2004 Nadanian named his daughter Kiti, Aronian replied, "See? I told you that it was 'Whiskas'!"[5]

Notable games[edit]

Nadanian–Sakaev, ICC 2001
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
c8 black bishop
e8 black queen
f8 black rook
h8 black king
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
e7 black pawn
g7 black bishop
h7 black pawn
b6 black pawn
f5 black pawn
g5 white knight
c4 white bishop
d4 white pawn
e3 white bishop
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
d1 white queen
e1 white king
h1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Position after 12...Qe8
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
e8 black queen
f8 black king
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
e7 black pawn
f7 black rook
g7 black bishop
h7 white queen
b6 black pawn
e6 black bishop
h6 white bishop
f5 black pawn
d4 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
e1 white king
h1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Final position

Nadanian–Sakaev, ICC 2001[edit]

The game was played between Nadanian (White) and the former Russian champion, Konstantin Sakaev (Black) on the Internet Chess Club server in 2001.[77] It was annotated by Tibor Karolyi in his Genius in the Background book (2009) and by Lubomir Kavalek in The Washington Post on January 4, 2010:[78]

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.Na4 The Nadanian Variation. White preventing c7–c5 and threatening 6.e4.[78] 5...Bg7 6.e4 Nb6 7.Be3 0-0 8.Nf3 f5?! This weakens the kingside.[78] 9.exf5 gxf5 10.Nxb6 axb6 11.Bc4+ Kh8? Yet another mistake; 11...e6 is correct.[42][78] 12.Ng5! Opens the diagonal for the queen to reach the h-file.[42] 12...Qe8 13.Bf7!! Kavalek writes, "A shocking deflection allowing the white queen to join the attack."[78] 13...Rxf7 14.Qh5 Kg8 After 14...Bf6 15.Nxf7+ Kg7 16.Qh6+! Kxf7 17.Qh5+ Kf8 18.Bh6+ White wins.[42][78] 15.Qxh7+ Kf8 16.Ne6+!! Karolyi writes, "This is a truly ferocious shot".[79] 16...Bxe6 17.Bh6! Black has no defense against 18.Qh8 checkmate.[78] 1–0

Karolyi proclaims, "A particularly striking example to showcase Ashot's brilliant attacking play."[42]

Wu Shaobin–Nadanian, Singapore 2006[edit]

"Wu Shaobin–Nadanian, Singapore 2006". 
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
e8 black rook
g8 black king
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
b6 black bishop
f6 black rook
d5 white pawn
g5 white knight
a4 black pawn
b4 white pawn
g4 black knight
g3 white pawn
h3 black bishop
a2 white pawn
e2 white bishop
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white queen
e1 white rook
h1 white king
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Position before 27...Bg2+!!
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
e8 black rook
g8 black king
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
d5 white pawn
g5 white knight
h5 black pawn
a4 black pawn
b4 white pawn
f4 white king
e3 black bishop
g3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
e2 white bishop
h2 black rook
a1 white rook
b1 white queen
e1 white rook
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Final position

The following game was played between the former member of China's Olympiad team GM Wu Shaobin (White) and Nadanian (Black) at Singapore 2006:

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e5 3.dxe5 Ng4 4.Nf3 Bc5 5.e3 Nc6 6.Be2 Ncxe5 7.Nxe5 Nxe5 8.0-0 0-0 9.b3 Re8 10.Bb2 a5 Well-known plan in this position, introduced by the IM Dolfi Drimer in 1968,[80] with which Black develops the a8 rook along the sixth rank using the Ra8–a6–h6 manoeuvre.[81] Nadanian calls the pawn advance a7–a5 "the soul of the Budapest Gambit".[82] 11.Nc3 Ra6 12.Ne4 Ba7 13.Ng3 Qh4 14.Nf5 Qg5!? This was a new move. Before had been played 14...Qe4. 15.Nd4 Rg6 16.g3 d5?! 18...Qh6 was stronger. 17.cxd5? White should have played 17.Nb5! 17...Bh3! 18.Re1 Ng4 19.Nf3 Qxe3! Karolyi writes, "This shows Kasparov-like aggression and ingenuity." 20.Bd4 Qxf2+!! 21.Bxf2 Bxf2+ 22.Kh1 Bb6 23.Qb1? White should have defended with 23.Rf1! After 23...Ne3 24.Qd3 Bg2+ 25.Kg1 Bh3 White can either repeat moves with 26.Kh1, or try 26.Nd4. 23...Nf2+ 24.Kg1 Rf6! Black has time to increase the pressure. 25.b4! If 25.Qc2?, then 25...Ng4+ 26.Kh1 Bg2+! winning the queen. 25...a4! But not 25...Rxf3? 26.bxa5 26.Ng5 Ng4+! 27.Kh1 Bg2+!! "This is a marvellous move, and it must have been such a thrill to play it on the board." (Karolyi). 28.Kxg2 Rf2+ 29.Kh3 Rxh2+ 30.Kxg4 h5+ 31.Kf4 Be3+ 0–1[83]

Books[edit]

  • Nadanian, Ashot (2013). Мои шахматы [My Chess] (in Russian). Дюаль. ISBN 978-99941-2-910-2. 

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Karolyi 2009, p. 219.
  2. ^ "Interview: Levon Aronian", New In Chess Magazine, No. 2, 2012, p. 43
  3. ^ a b "Nadanian". Armenian Chess Federation. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  4. ^ Nadanian, Ashot (2011-07-25). "Tigran Petrosian leads in Lake Sevan". ChessBase.com. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Interview with IM Ashot Nadanian". SingaporeChessNews. 2010-08-23. Archived from the original on 21 October 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  6. ^ Nadanian, Ashot (2010-07-23). "The Voiceless Old Man". S'pore Chess News. Archived from the original on 2012-03-12. Retrieved 23 October 2010. 
  7. ^ "36th USSR Junior Chess Championship, Kapsukas, January 5–18, 1987". RusBase. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  8. ^ "37th USSR Junior Chess Championship, Ivano–Frankivsk, January 5–18, 1988". RusBase. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  9. ^ "38th USSR Junior Chess Championship, Pinsk, January 5–18, 1989". RusBase. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  10. ^ a b Джаникян, Грач (2011-01-11). "Одним глазом – в Вейк-ан-Зее" (in Russian). Chess-News.ru. Retrieved 2011-04-03. 
  11. ^ Crowther, Mark (1999-11-01). "TWIC 260: Armenian Chess Championships". London Chess Center. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  12. ^ Bartelski, Wojciech. "Men's Chess Olympiads: Ashot Nadanian". OlimpBase. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  13. ^ Bartelski, Wojciech. "European Men's Chess Club Cup: Ashot Nadanian". OlimpBase. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  14. ^ Crowther, Mark (1998-11-09). "The Week in Chess 209: Zonal 1.5 Panormo, Crete". London Chess Center. Retrieved 2011-04-03. 
  15. ^ "European Men Championship". Ruschess.com. Archived from the original on 2008-07-20. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  16. ^ "European Individual Championships (2014)". ChessGames.com. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  17. ^ "FIDE World Rapid and Blitz Championships 2013". The Week In Chess. 2013-06-10. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  18. ^ "Armenian Team Chess Championship: Ashot Nadanian". OlimpBase. Retrieved 2014-10-01. 
  19. ^ Matlak 1992, p. 2.
  20. ^ "Tbilisi 1996". 365Chess.com. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  21. ^ "Chessville – Annotated Games – Bukhuti Gurgenidze vs Ashot Nadanian, Tbilisi 1996". Chessville. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  22. ^ Sloan, Sam. "Armenians Sweep 1998 New York Open Chess Tournament". Anusha.com. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  23. ^ "Moscou 2002 – Aeroflot Open". BrasilBase. Retrieved 2010-10-20.  (Portuguese)
  24. ^ "FIDE Archive – Tournament report July 2002: Final 4 Estrin Memorial". World Chess Federation. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  25. ^ "FIDE Archive – Tournament report April 2004: Aeroflot Open 2004 B". World Chess Federation. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  26. ^ "FIDE Archive – Tournament report April 2005: 20th Goldberg Memorial". World Chess Federation. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  27. ^ Lam Choong Wai, Edwin (2006-09-18). "Dao slices his way past Dimakilling". ChessBase. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  28. ^ "FIDE Archive – Tournament report April 2008: 1st Leg ASEAN Circuit Chess Tournament 2008 (GMB)". World Chess Federation. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  29. ^ Lam Choong Wai, Edwin (2008-09-02). "5th Dato’ Arthur Tan Open – Li Chao wins again". ChessBase. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  30. ^ "1st Korea Open Chess Tournament 2008". Chess-Results.com. 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  31. ^ "22nd National Rapid Chess Championships 2010". Chess-Results.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  32. ^ "81st Yerevan Ch. Final". Chess-results.com. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  33. ^ "4th Karen Asrian Memorial". Chessdom.com. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  34. ^ "Andranik Margaryan Memorial 2012 – Round robin". Chess-Results.com. 2012-01-17. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  35. ^ "2012 Armenian Rapid Championship". Chess-Results.com. 2012-02-18. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  36. ^ "Ashot Nadanian – Chess Games". Chess Tempo. Retrieved 2011-04-03. 
  37. ^ "Bologan vs Nadanian". Chessville. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2011-12-20. 
  38. ^ "FIDE Title Norms: Grand Master (GM)". FIDE. Retrieved 2011-12-20. 
  39. ^ Karolyi 2009, p. 205.
  40. ^ a b Mega Database 2011. ChessBase. 2010. ISBN 978-3-86681-226-0. 
  41. ^ "Hack Attack", Kingpin, No. 39, Spring 2007, p. 43
  42. ^ a b c d e Karolyi 2009, p. 197.
  43. ^ "Ashot Nadanian vs Ruslan Ponomariov (1997)". ChessGames.com. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  44. ^ Watson 2003, pp. 252–254.
  45. ^ "Ashot Nadanian – Yearbook Surveys". New In Chess. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  46. ^ "Gruenfeld Defense: Exchange Variation, Nadanian Attack". Chess.com. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  47. ^ Bosch, Jeroen (2006). "SOS – Volume 5". New In Chess. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  48. ^ New in Chess Editorial Team 2006, p. 6, p. 17.
  49. ^ Donaldson, John. "Book review: Genius in the Background". JeremySilman.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  50. ^ Hansen, Carsten (2002-02-09). "Checkpoint". ChessCafe.com. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  51. ^ Matanović 2000, p. 260.
  52. ^ New in Chess Editorial Team 2010, pp. 11–12.
  53. ^ Matanović 1991, p. 329.
  54. ^ "Yearbook Contributors". New in Chess. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  55. ^ "Наданян А. – Подставка для фантазии" (in Russian). Sportedu.ru. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  56. ^ "Kaissiber Index" (in German). Kaissiber.de. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  57. ^ "Nowinka". Szachy = Chess (in Polish) (Poland) 10: 14–17. 1997. ISSN 1425-106X. 
  58. ^ "Chessville Columnists". Chessville. Archived from the original on 19 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-11. 
  59. ^ Nadanian, Ashot (2011-08-02). "Jobava wins volcanic event". ChessBase.com. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  60. ^ "Lake Sevan 2011". Chess Academy of Armenia. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  61. ^ "Подставка для фантазии", 64 – Шахматное обозрение, No. 10, 1998, pp. 55–57 (Russian)
  62. ^ "GM Varuzhan Akobian Biography". The Official Site of GM Varuzhan Akobian. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-20. 
  63. ^ Savinov, Misha. "Interview with Tigran L. Petrosian". ChessCafe.com. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  64. ^ "Ашот Наданян в бригаде тренеров" (in Russian). GolosArmenii.am. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  65. ^ Nadanian, Ashot (2010-11-15). "Goodbye, Singapore!". S'pore Chess News. Archived from the original on 2012-03-12. Retrieved 2010-12-13. 
  66. ^ "Arbiters and Trainers. Personal Card: Ashot Nadanian". FIDE. Archived from the original on 2012-06-03. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  67. ^ Trent, Lawrence; Gordon, Stephen (2011-02-07). Tata Steel Chess Special – Part 1 (podcast). The Full English Breakfast. Event occurs at 11:20. Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  68. ^ "Levon Aronian starts preparing for Candidates Matches 2011". Chessdom. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  69. ^ "KC-Conference with Levon Aronian Part 2". Crestbook. 2011-07-24. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  70. ^ Aronian, Levon (2012-01-26). Levon Aronian shows his win against Anish Giri. Doggers, Peter. Event occurs at 14:50. Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  71. ^ Gradinar, Olga (2012-07-16). "Ашот Наданян: "Шахматы – это армянский брэнд"" (in Russian). Miasin.by. Retrieved 3 August 2012. 
  72. ^ "ChessBase Christmas Puzzles: A tale of seven knights". ChessBase. 2009-12-29. Archived from the original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  73. ^ Speelman, Tisdall & Wade 1993, p. 11.
  74. ^ "ChessBase.com – Chess News – A tale of seven knights". ChessBase. 2009-12-29. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  75. ^ "IECG Title Norms (Player Names L–P)". International Email Chess Group. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  76. ^ "Informations (Chess statistics) on FICGS". Free Internet Correspondence Games Server. Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  77. ^ The date 2005 given by Karolyi and Kavalek appears to be incorrect. According to the Internet Chess Club's searchable database, the blitz game between April24-1915 (Nadanian's ICC username) and K–Sakaev was played on June 24, 2001 with the time control of 3 minutes per player.
  78. ^ a b c d e f g Kavalek, Lubomir (2010-01-04). "Chess". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 
  79. ^ Karolyi 2009, p. 198.
  80. ^ Moskalenko 2008, p. 159.
  81. ^ Lalić 1998, p. 12.
  82. ^ Nadanian, Ashot. "The Soul of the Budapest Gambit". Chessville. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  83. ^ Karolyi 2009, pp. 198–203.

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