Ashraf Ali Thanwi

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Ashraf Ali Thanvi
اشرف علی تھانوی
Ashraf Ali Thanwi.jpg
Born (1863-08-19)19 August 1863
Died 4 July 1943(1943-07-04) (aged 79)
Resting place Thana Bhawan
Nationality Indian (British subject)
Ethnicity Indian
Era Modern era
Region Islam
Occupation Islamic scholar
Jurisprudence Sunni islam
Movement Deobandi
Main interest(s) fiqh, sunni islam
Notable idea(s) islamic fiqah
Alma mater Darul Uloom Deoband
Disciple of Haji Imdadullah

Ashraf 'Ali Thanwi (August 19, 1863 – July 4, 1943) (Urdu: اشرف علی تھانوی‎) was a prominent Indian scholar of the Deobandi school. Ashraf Ali was from the first wedlock of Abdul Haq Sahib. From his first wife, Maulvi Abdul Haq had four sons. The eldest one was Ashraf Ali Thanvi himself, followed by Akber Ali Sahib Thanvi and Akhtar Ali . Thus Thanvi had seven immediate siblings and four step siblings.

Ashraf Ali Thanvi himself wed twice. From the first wife he had no children. However, he took his nephew Shabbir Ali Sahib Thanvi from his brother and took responsibility of his upbringing.

Thanvi married second time with a widow who brought with herself a daughter. Hence Thanvi had no biological son or real daughter of his own. Thanvi died few years[when?] before creation of Pakistan. His religious contribution are still an asset specially for Deobandi Scholars.


Thanwi graduated from the Darul Uloom Deoband in 1884. It is claimed[by whom?] that when Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, one of the founders of the institution, arrived for the graduation ceremony, Maulana Mehmud Hasan informed him that Thanwi, an especially intelligent student was about to graduate. Gangohi wanted to test this student by asking the most difficult questions that he could think of. Thanwi's answers reportedly amazed and pleased Gangohi, who himself conducted the Dastārbandī Jalsa, the turban-tying ceremony marking graduation.********************


After his graduation, Thanwi taught religious sciences in Kanpur for fourteen years. Over a short period of time, he acquired a reputable position as a religious scholar, of Sufism among other subjects.[1] His teaching attracted numerous students and his research and publications became well known in Islamic institutions. During these years, he traveled to various cities and villages, delivering lectures in the hope of reforming people. Printed versions of his lectures and discourses would usually become available shortly after these tours. Until then, few Islamic scholars had had their lectures printed and widely circulated in their own lifetimes. The desire to reform the masses intensified in him during his stay at Kanpur.

Eventually, Thanwi retired from teaching and devoted himself to reestablishing the spiritual centre (khānqāh) of his shaikh in Thāna Bhāwan. Upon this transition, Imdadullah remarked, "It is good that you have arrived in Thāna Bhāwan. It is hoped that people will benefit from you spiritually and physically. You should engage yourself in revitalizing our madrasah and khānqāh once more in Thāna Bhāwan. As for myself, I am always praying for you and attentive towards you."[citation needed]

Students and disciples[edit]

Thanwi’s students and disciples settled in all parts of South Asia. They include:

Fatwa of kufr and its refutation[edit]

In 1906 Ahmad Raza Khan issued a fatwa of kufr against Thanwi and other Deobandi leaders entitled Husam ul-Haramain (Urdu: Sword of Mecca and Medina‎), decrying them as unbelievers (kufr) and Satanists.[2][3] The fatwa was countersigned by many other ulama, which would have included some from Hijaz.[4][5][6][7]

Views on politics[edit]

Thanwi argued, mainly using verses of the Quran, that political rule is only a means of instituting Islam in people's lives and not the purpose of life itself. All modern political notions that contradict the Quran and Hadith would have to be forsaken, and the "pure" political thought reflected in Quranic sources should guide Muslims in organizing and structuring their governments.[citation needed]. He believed that sharia law and reinstating a Islamic jurisprudence would be the only successful path for a muslim state to prosper.

He was the murshid of Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani and Mufti Muhammad Shafi who supported Mohammad Ali Jinnah during the Pakistan movement.[citation needed]


Thanwi died in Thāna Bhāwan on July 4, 1943. His funeral prayer was led by his nephew, Zafar Ahmad Uthmānī, and he was buried in the graveyard of 'Ishq-e-Bāzān.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ali Abbasi, Shahid. (2008, January–March). Rethinking in Islam: Mawlana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi on Way and Way-faring. Hamdard Islamic-us, 21(1), 7–23. (Article on Ashraf 'Ali's teachings on Sufism.)
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Fatwa of Kufr (originally issued 1900 C.E.), posted at
  5. ^ Ahmad Raza Khan. Hussam-ul-Harmain
  6. ^ Fatawa Hussam-ul-Hermayn by Khan,Ahmad Raza Qadri
  7. ^ As-samare-ul-Hindiya by Khan,Hashmat Ali

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]