Asian Pacific American

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Asian-Pacific American (APA) or Asian-Pacific Islander (API) is a term sometimes used in the United States to include both Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Americans.

Asian or Pacific Islander was an option to indicate race and ethnicity in the United States Censuses in the 1990 and 2000 Census as well as in several Census Bureau studies in between, including Current Population Surveys reports and updates between 1994 and 2002.[1] A 1997 Office of Management and Budget directive separated the "Asian or Pacific Islander" racial category into two categories: "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander."[2]

The U.S. Department of Labor Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs defined Asian-Pacific Islander as "A person with origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines and Samoa; and on the Indian Subcontinent, includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan."[3] A definition from Henry Ford Health System states that an Asian-Pacific American is "A U.S. citizen whose origins are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, the Philippines, Samoa, Fiji, Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific or the Northern Marianas.[4]

The term is used in reference to Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week, the first ten days of May, established in 1978 by a joint resolution in United States Congress. The commemorative week was expanded to a month (Asian Pacific American Heritage Month) by Congress in 1992.[2]

The term is also used by several state boards and commissions, including in Washington,[5] Michigan,[6] Maryland,[7] and Connecticut.[8] The term is also used in the names of several non-profit groups, such as the A|P|A History Collective,[9] Center for Asian Pacific American Women,[10] Asian & Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund,[11] and National Coalition for Asian Pacific American Community Development.[12] Asian Pacific Americans are listed as a group on the United States Army website.[13]

Historical Demographics[edit]

Asian and Pacific Islander % of Population by U.S. State (1860-2010)[14][15][16][17][a]
State/Territory 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
United States United States of America 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.8% 1.5% 2.9% 3.7% 4.8%
Alabama Alabama 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 0.7% 1.1%
Alaska Alaska 7.1% 5.3% 3.8% 0.8% 0.8% 1.0% 0.8% 0.9% 2.0% 3.6% 4.5% 5.4%
Arizona Arizona 0.0% 0.2% 4.0% 1.3% 1.4% 0.8% 0.5% 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.8% 1.5% 1.9% 2.8%
Arkansas Arkansas 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.9% 1.2%
California California 9.2% 8.8% 8.7% 6.1% 3.8% 3.4% 3.1% 3.0% 2.4% 1.7% 2.0% 2.8% 5.3% 9.6% 11.2% 13.0%
Colorado Colorado 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 1.0% 1.8% 2.3% 2.8%
Connecticut Connecticut 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 1.5% 2.4% 3.8%
Delaware Delaware 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.7% 1.4% 2.1% 3.2%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 1.0% 1.8% 2.8% 3.5%
Florida Florida 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 1.2% 1.8% 2.4%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 1.2% 2.2% 3.2%
Hawaii Hawaii 80.9% 76.5% 78.4% 78.0% 73.3% 72.9% 65.3% 57.7% 60.5% 61.8% 51.0% 38.6%
Idaho Idaho 28.5% 10.4% 2.4% 2.3% 1.7% 0.7% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.9% 1.0% 1.2%
Illinois Illinois 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 1.4% 2.5% 3.4% 4.6%
Indiana Indiana 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 0.7% 1.0% 1.6%
Iowa Iowa 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.9% 1.3% 1.7%
Kansas Kansas 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 1.3% 1.7% 2.4%
Kentucky Kentucky 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 1.1%
Louisiana Louisiana 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.6% 1.0% 1.2% 1.5%
Maine Maine 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 1.0%
Maryland Maryland 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 1.5% 2.9% 4.0% 5.5%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.9% 2.4% 3.8% 5.3%
Michigan Michigan 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 1.1% 1.8% 2.4%
Minnesota Minnesota 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.7% 1.8% 2.9% 4.0%
Mississippi Mississippi 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 0.9%
Missouri Missouri 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 0.8% 1.2% 1.6%
Montana Montana 9.5% 4.5% 1.8% 1.7% 0.6% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6%
Nebraska Nebraska 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.8% 1.3% 1.8%
Nevada Nevada 0.0% 7.3% 8.7% 6.0% 3.7% 2.3% 1.9% 1.3% 0.7% 0.5% 0.5% 0.7% 1.8% 3.2% 4.9% 7.2%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.3% 2.2%
New Jersey New Jersey 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 1.4% 3.5% 5.7% 8.3%
New Mexico New Mexico 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.9% 1.2% 1.4%
New York New York 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.7% 1.8% 3.9% 5.5% 7.3%
North Carolina North Carolina 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.8% 1.4% 2.2%
North Dakota North Dakota 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 1.0%
Ohio Ohio 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.8% 1.2% 1.7%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.6% 1.1% 1.5% 1.7%
Oregon Oregon 0.0% 3.7% 5.4% 3.0% 3.1% 1.6% 1.0% 0.9% 0.6% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7% 1.3% 2.4% 3.2% 3.7%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 1.2% 1.8% 2.7%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 0.6% 1.8% 2.4% 2.9%
South Carolina South Carolina 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.6% 0.9% 1.3%
South Dakota South Dakota 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.9%
Tennessee Tennessee 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.7% 1.0% 1.4%
Texas Texas 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.8% 1.9% 2.8% 3.8%
Utah Utah 0.0% 0.5% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 1.0% 1.9% 2.4% 2.0%
Vermont Vermont 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.6% 0.9% 1.3%
Virginia Virginia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 1.2% 2.6% 3.8% 5.5%
Washington (state) Washington 0.0% 1.0% 4.2% 1.0% 1.8% 1.4% 1.5% 1.5% 1.1% 0.7% 1.0% 1.3% 2.5% 4.3% 5.9% 7.2%
West Virginia West Virginia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 1.1% 1.7% 2.3%
Wyoming Wyoming 1.6% 4.4% 0.7% 0.9% 1.3% 0.8% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 0.2% 0.2%

a^ The data for 2000 is generated by adding the Asian and Pacific Islander populations from two different sources both by the U.S. Census Bureau.

See also[edit]

References[edit]