Asian Pacific American

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Asian-Pacific American (APA) or Asian-Pacific Islander (API) is a term sometimes used in the United States to include both Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Americans.

Asian or Pacific Islander was an option to indicate race and ethnicity in the United States Censuses in the 1990 and 2000 Census as well as in several Census Bureau studies in between, including Current Population Surveys reports and updates between 1994 and 2002.[1] A 1997 Office of Management and Budget directive separated the "Asian or Pacific Islander" racial category into two categories: "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander."[2]

The U.S. Department of Labor Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs defined Asian-Pacific Islander as "A person with origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines and Samoa; and on the Indian Subcontinent, includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan."[3] A definition from Henry Ford Health System states that an Asian-Pacific American is "A U.S. citizen whose origins are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, the Philippines, Samoa, Fiji, Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific or the Northern Marianas.[4]

The term is used in reference to Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week, the first ten days of May, established in 1978 by a joint resolution in United States Congress. The commemorative week was expanded to a month (Asian Pacific American Heritage Month) by Congress in 1992.[2]

The term is also used by several state boards and commissions, including in Washington,[5] Michigan,[6] Maryland,[7] and Connecticut.[8] The term is also used in the names of several non-profit groups, such as the A|P|A History Collective,[9] Center for Asian Pacific American Women,[10] Asian & Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund,[11] and National Coalition for Asian Pacific American Community Development.[12] Asian Pacific Americans are listed as a group on the United States Army website.[13]

The Model Minority Myth[edit]

Asian Americans are often perceived as the highest-income, best-educated and fastest-growing racial group in the United States. They are perceived to be more satisfied than the general public with their lives, finances and the direction of the country, and they place more value than other Americans do on marriage, parenthood, hard work and career success, according to a comprehensive new nationwide survey by the Pew Research Center.[14]

However, this is in fact incorrect and dangerous. It is a generalized misconception that is used to justify exclusion, understate achievement, and social injustice. It pits minority groups against each other by implying that non-minority model groups are at fault for falling short of the model. The generalization is especially dangerous for certain ethnic groups who do not have the historical backgrounds of the ethnic groups that is often mentioned in studies such as by the Pew Research Center. These ethnic groups include the Hmong, Cambodian, and Malay, among others, all who statistically do not have higher incomes, better education, white collar careers, and etc., despite being grouped into the Model Minority. The myth also fails to distinguish the many generations of Asian populations, with each facing its unique differences.

Cultural Factors Behind Asian-Pacific American Success[edit]

After observing the rapid economic growth of Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore, as well as the success Asian Americans achieved, scholars took notice of a cultural commonality. All of them are influenced by Confucian values. In 1979, Herman Kahn, the world-famous futurist, pointed out the cultural strengths of the Confucian Ethic in the pursuits of industrialization and affluence. He predicted, “the Confucian ethic—the creation of dedicated, motivated, responsible, and educated individuals and the enhanced sense of commitment, organizational identity, and loyalty to various institutions—will result in all the neo-Confucian societies having at least potentially higher growth rates than other cultures.” [15] In 1980, Roderick MacFarquhar, the world-renowned China expert and former Director of the John King Fairbank Center for East Asian Research at Harvard University declared: “That ideology [Confucianism] is as important to the rise of the east Asian hyper-growth economies as the conjunction of Protestantism and the rise of capitalism in the West.” [16]

In 2013, YuKong Zhao further expanded the Confucian Ethic theory in explaining the success of Asian-Pacific Americans with an East Asian origin. He explains: After immigrating to the US, Asian-Pacific Americans embraced and benefited from many important Western values such as rule of law, equal rights, and independent thinking. At the same time, they retained much of their own cultural heritage, predominantly Confucian values, such as the emphasis on education, saving, and devotion to the family. It is the combination of positive values drawn from both Confucianism and Western culture that make many Asian-Pacific Americans successful in their pursuit of the American Dream! Among the inspiring Confucian values that are ingrained in the psyche of Americans with East Asian origins, there are 5 values most critical to their successes.[17]

  1. Li-zhi (立志): Determination for an outstanding life.
  2. Qin-xue (勤学): Pursuing an excellent education.
  3. Jie-jian (节俭): Thrift; saving for a better life.
  4. Gu-jia (顾家): Caring for your family.
  5. Ze-you (择友): Developing desirable friendships.

Historical Demographics[edit]

Asian and Pacific Islander % of Population by U.S. State (1860-2010)[18][19][20][21][a]
State/Territory 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
United States United States of America 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.8% 1.5% 2.9% 3.7% 4.8%
Alabama Alabama 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 0.7% 1.1%
Alaska Alaska 7.1% 5.3% 3.8% 0.8% 0.8% 1.0% 0.8% 0.9% 2.0% 3.6% 4.5% 5.4%
Arizona Arizona 0.0% 0.2% 4.0% 1.3% 1.4% 0.8% 0.5% 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.8% 1.5% 1.9% 2.8%
Arkansas Arkansas 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.9% 1.2%
California California 9.2% 8.8% 8.7% 6.1% 3.8% 3.4% 3.1% 3.0% 2.4% 1.7% 2.0% 2.8% 5.3% 9.6% 11.2% 13.0%
Colorado Colorado 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 1.0% 1.8% 2.3% 2.8%
Connecticut Connecticut 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 1.5% 2.4% 3.8%
Delaware Delaware 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.7% 1.4% 2.1% 3.2%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 1.0% 1.8% 2.8% 3.5%
Florida Florida 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 1.2% 1.8% 2.4%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 1.2% 2.2% 3.2%
Hawaii Hawaii 80.9% 76.5% 78.4% 78.0% 73.3% 72.9% 65.3% 57.7% 60.5% 61.8% 51.0% 38.6%
Idaho Idaho 28.5% 10.4% 2.4% 2.3% 1.7% 0.7% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.9% 1.0% 1.2%
Illinois Illinois 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 1.4% 2.5% 3.4% 4.6%
Indiana Indiana 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 0.7% 1.0% 1.6%
Iowa Iowa 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.9% 1.3% 1.7%
Kansas Kansas 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 1.3% 1.7% 2.4%
Kentucky Kentucky 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 1.1%
Louisiana Louisiana 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.6% 1.0% 1.2% 1.5%
Maine Maine 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 1.0%
Maryland Maryland 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 1.5% 2.9% 4.0% 5.5%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.9% 2.4% 3.8% 5.3%
Michigan Michigan 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 1.1% 1.8% 2.4%
Minnesota Minnesota 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.7% 1.8% 2.9% 4.0%
Mississippi Mississippi 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 0.9%
Missouri Missouri 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 0.8% 1.2% 1.6%
Montana Montana 9.5% 4.5% 1.8% 1.7% 0.6% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6%
Nebraska Nebraska 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.8% 1.3% 1.8%
Nevada Nevada 0.0% 7.3% 8.7% 6.0% 3.7% 2.3% 1.9% 1.3% 0.7% 0.5% 0.5% 0.7% 1.8% 3.2% 4.9% 7.2%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.3% 2.2%
New Jersey New Jersey 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 1.4% 3.5% 5.7% 8.3%
New Mexico New Mexico 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.9% 1.2% 1.4%
New York New York 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.7% 1.8% 3.9% 5.5% 7.3%
North Carolina North Carolina 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.8% 1.4% 2.2%
North Dakota North Dakota 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 1.0%
Ohio Ohio 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.8% 1.2% 1.7%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.6% 1.1% 1.5% 1.7%
Oregon Oregon 0.0% 3.7% 5.4% 3.0% 3.1% 1.6% 1.0% 0.9% 0.6% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7% 1.3% 2.4% 3.2% 3.7%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 1.2% 1.8% 2.7%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4% 0.6% 1.8% 2.4% 2.9%
South Carolina South Carolina 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.6% 0.9% 1.3%
South Dakota South Dakota 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.9%
Tennessee Tennessee 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.7% 1.0% 1.4%
Texas Texas 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.8% 1.9% 2.8% 3.8%
Utah Utah 0.0% 0.5% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 1.0% 1.9% 2.4% 2.0%
Vermont Vermont 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.6% 0.9% 1.3%
Virginia Virginia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 1.2% 2.6% 3.8% 5.5%
Washington (state) Washington 0.0% 1.0% 4.2% 1.0% 1.8% 1.4% 1.5% 1.5% 1.1% 0.7% 1.0% 1.3% 2.5% 4.3% 5.9% 7.2%
West Virginia West Virginia 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 1.1% 1.7% 2.3%
Wyoming Wyoming 1.6% 4.4% 0.7% 0.9% 1.3% 0.8% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 0.2% 0.2%

a^ The data for 2000 is generated by adding the Asian and Pacific Islander populations from two different sources both by the U.S. Census Bureau.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS)," United States Census Bureau.
  2. ^ a b "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2011," United States Census Bureau.
  3. ^ "HR Self Service - Glossary of Terms." Princeton University.
  4. ^ "Diversity Definitions." Henry Ford Health System.
  5. ^ "Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs," State of Washington.
  6. ^ "Asian Pacific American Affairs Commission," State of Michigan.
  7. ^ "Governor's Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs, State of Maryland.
  8. ^ "Asian Pacific American Affairs Commission," State of Connecticut.
  9. ^ "Credits," A|P|A History Collective.
  10. ^ "Center for APA Women."
  11. ^ "Asian & Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund."
  12. ^ "National Coalition for Asian Pacific American Community Development.
  13. ^ "Asian Pacific Americans in the U.S. Army." United States Army.
  14. ^ "The Rise of Asian Americans"
  15. ^ Herman Kahn, “The Confucian Ethic and Economic Growth,” in World Economic Development: 1979 and Beyond (Westview, 1979), 121–123
  16. ^ Roderick MacFarquar, “The Post-Confucian Challenge,” The Economist, February 9, 1980: 67–72
  17. ^ "The Chinese Secrets for Success: Five Inspiring Confucian Values" Yukong Zhao
  18. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Retrieved 2013-01-10. 
  19. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-16.pdf
  20. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-14.pdf
  21. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-11.pdf