Asian long-horned beetle
|Asian long-horned beetle|
Anthonomus aeneotinctus Champion, 1903
The Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) known as the starry sky or sky beetle is native to eastern China, Japan, and Korea. This species has now been accidentally introduced to the United States, where it was first discovered in 1996, as well as Canada and several countries in Europe, including Austria, France, Germany, Italy and the UK. This beetle is believed to have been spread from Asia in solid wood packaging material.
The genus Anoplophora comprises 36 species that occur throughout Asia, with the highest diversity in tropical and subtropical regions. Anoplophora glabripennis belongs to the tribe Lamiini, subfamily Lamiinae, family Cerambycidae and order Coleoptera. The tribe Lamiini comprises eight additional genera: Goes, Hebestola, Lamia, Monochamus, Microgoes, Neoptychodes, Plagiohammus and Plectrodera. All species in these genera are xylophagous, attacking coniferous and deciduous trees.
Physical description 
Adult Anoplophora glabripennis are very large insects with bodies ranging from 1 to 1.5 inches (2.5–4 cm) in length and antennae which can be as long as four inches (10 cm). They are shiny black with about 20 white spots on each wing cover and long antennae conspicuously banded black and white. These beetles can fly, but generally only for short distances, which is a common limitation for Cerambycidae of their size and weight. The upper sections of the legs of the adults are whitish-blue. Anoplophora glabripennis can be distinguished from related species by the markings on the wing covers and the pattern of the antennae.
Life cycle 
Asian long-horned beetle larvae do not pupate before they reach a critical weight. Accordingly, they may overwinter either as larvae or as pupae, and depending on the weather they generally take about one to two years to complete their life cycles. In extreme cases they might take some three years. In their overwintering phase they are inactive, a dormant condition known as diapause. They resume their life cycle in the following summer. Larvae first create a feeding gallery in the cambial region and later an apparently oval-shaped tunnel in the sapwood and heartwood. However, the oval cross-section might be largely illusory, caused by the angle of cutting through the tunnel; The emergence holes are normal to the wood surface, and look completely round. Larvae expel frass from their tunnels near the original oviposition site. Most individuals overwinter as larvae. Pupation occurs at the end of the larval tunnel usually in late spring and early summer.
Adult longevity and fecundity are influenced by conditions such as the larval host plant and temperature. Anoplophora glabripennis adult females undergo a period of obligatory maturation feeding after emergence. On emergence, females can copulate, although their ovaries are immature and feeding is necessary for ovarian maturation.
Laboratory studies have estimated the female maturation period lasts 9–15 days.
Adult males have mature spermatozoa before emergence, and feeding is necessary only to sustain their normal activity (Li & Liu, 1997). Asian long-horned beetle larvae and adults chew and excavate wood with mandibles of modest size, but great strength. This too is characteristic of the family Cerambycidae. Adults, especially males, display long antennae used to sense the sex pheromones of potential mates. The conspicuous antennae probably act as aposematic signals to predators and in sexual rivalry as well. Accordingly the main targets for predation by birds for example, are the larvae.
Life expectancy 
In the wild, Asian long-horned beetles require between one and three years to reach maturity. The adult lifespan is about 50 days for males and 66 days for females. The lifespan of Anoplophora glabripennis in captivity is not known.
In its native range, ALB infests trees primarily in the genera Acer (Sapindaceae, Maple), Populus (Salicaceae), Salix (Salicaceae, Willow), and Ulmus (Ulmaceae, Elm). In the United States, ALB has completed development on species of these genera and also Aesculus (Sapindaceae), Albizia (Fabaceae), Betula (Betulaceae), Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae), Fraxinus (Oleaceae), Platanus (Platanaceae), Prunus (Rosaceae), and Sorbus (Rosaceae). Acer is the most commonly infested tree genus in the United States, followed by Ulmus and Salix. In Canada, complete development has been confirmed only on Acer, Betula, Populus, and Salix, although oviposition has occurred on other tree genera. Acer is the most commonly infested tree genus in Canada. In Europe, complete development has been recorded on Acer, Aesculus, Alnus (Betulaceae), Betula, Carpinus (Betulaceae), Fagus (Fagaceae), Fraxinus, Platanus, Populus, Prunus, Salix, and Sorbus. The top five host genera infested in Europe, in decreasing order, are Acer, Betula, Salix, Aesculus, and Populus. Not all Populus species are equally susceptible to ALB attack. For example, in China, Populus species in sections Aigeiros and Tacamahaca are generally more susceptible to ALB than species in section Populus (=sect. Leuce).
Although individuals do not typically disperse very far, some may travel as far as a kilometer or two in a season in search of new host trees.
Feeding behavior and Predators 
Adult Anoplophora glabripennis feed on leaves, twigs, and other plant matter. In their native habitat larvae of Anoplophora glabripennis feed on the healthy bark, phloem, and xylem of more than 24 species of hardwood trees. This causes the death of many trees. Also, it is extremely hard to kill off ALB larvae, another reason for this beetle's success.
Although the Asian long~horned beetle can fly for unbroken distances of 400 yards (370 m) or more in search of a host tree, they tend to lay eggs in the same tree from which they emerged as adults, migrating only when population density becomes too high. During the summer months, a mated adult ALB female chews some 35 to 90 individual depressions into the host tree's bark and lays an egg in each of the pits. The white, apodous eruciform larvae hatch out in 10–15 days.
The larvae are straight, with their front ends somewhat broader than the rest of the body. This is characteristic of many Cerambycid larvae, and so is the fact that instead of using legs to navigate their tunnels, they have fleshy pads on their segments. They press the pads against the tunnels walls for grip as they stretch or contract their bodies.
As they eat, they tunnel into the tree's phloem and cambium layers beneath the tree bark. After several months, they tunnel deeper into the tree's heartwood where they mature into pupae. The total process from egg to pupation takes some 10–22 months, depending on the season, the weather, and the quality of the food supplied by the tree. Generally speaking, the phloem and cambium are the best food sources, but more exposed to predators such as woodpeckers, and a lot wetter. Heartwood and even sapwood are less nutritious, but more secure, so that is where the mature larva digs its pupation chamber. They do not pupate before they have gained the necessary mass to support their adult activities and functions.
The pupal stage may last several months if pupation occurred at the start of the cold season, causing the pupa to go into diapause. The adults emerge from the pupae near the surface of the tree when the climate outside causes them to break diapause. They emerge as early as May and as late as October or November, depending on climate. The full-grown adult ALBs emerge through circular exit holes that typically measure 10–15 mm in diameter but can range from 6 to 20 mm.
Asian long-horned beetle gallery development and exit holes weaken the integrity of infested trees and can eventually result in death of severely infested trees. Larvae are considered to be the most dangerous because they tunnel in the cambial region of wood. Larvae feeding reduces wood quality. After a tree has been occupied by generations of the beetles, larval feeding can disrupt the tree's vascular tissues, encourage fungal growth, and cause structural weakness, any of which might kill the tree. Adult Asian long-horned beetles are considered to be of minor importance since they feed on twigs, foliage and occasionally on fruit-bearing trees. Asian long-horned beetle attack both healthy and stressed trees, of any size from potted to mature trees.
The Asian long-horned beetle is now one of the most destructive non-native insects in the United States; it and other wood-boring pests cause an estimated $3.5 billion in annual damages in the United States.
Detection of infestation 
Mature beetles emerge from trees beginning in late May and lasting through October with a frequency peaking in July. Tree infestation can be detected by looking for exit holes 3/8 to 3/4 inches in diameter (1.5–2 cm) often in the larger branches of the crowns of infested trees. Sometimes sap can be seen oozing from the exit holes with coarse sawdust or "frass" in evidence on the ground or lower branches. Dead and dying tree limbs or branches and yellowing leaves when there has been no drought also signal ALB infestation. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) research indicates this beetle can survive and reproduce in most sections of the country where suitable host trees exist.
Infestations in North America 
Adult ALBs can be seen from late spring to fall, depending on the climate. The ALB was first discovered in the United States in 1996 in the Greenpoint section of Brooklyn. Shortly after, another infestation was detected in Amityville on Long Island. Since then infestations have been found in the Islip area of Long Island in Queens and in Manhattan. In fact, several infested trees were removed around Central Park. The ALB was discovered in Chicago in 1998. An ALB infestation was detected in Hudson County, New Jersey in 2002 and in the Central New Jersey Middlesex and Union Counties in 2004. In 2008 a sizeable infestation resulting in the removal of more than 28,000 trees was discovered in Worcester, Massachusetts. Ongoing inspection of host trees within the 98 sq mi (250 km2) quarantine area of Worcester county has revealed that, since 2008, over 19,000 trees were infested; there is some evidence that the infestation may date back as far as 1997. On July 5, 2010, six infested trees were found on the grounds of the Faulkner Hospital in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, which is across the street from the Arnold Arboretum, where an infestation is poised to devastate the oldest arboretum in America. As of 2011, the ALB is considered a threat to the forestry industry in Ohio and steps are being taken to eradicate it.
Alert workers have uncovered and reported ALBs in warehouses in CA, FL, IL, IN, MA, MI, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TX, WA, and WI in the United States, and in the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. After an aggressive containment program and with the last confirmed sighting in 2007, Canada declared itself free of the beetle on April 5, 2013 and lifted restrictions on the movement of tree materials.
The ALB was believed to have arrived in New York City in the 1980s in wood packing material. According to Victor Mastro, the Director of Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Laboratory on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, the center of the infection zone was a warehouse which imported plumbing supplies from China (Smith, 2003). The infestations in Hudson County, New Jersey and on Long Island are believed to have spread from the Brooklyn point of entry. The infestations in Chicago and central New Jersey are believed to have come from a separate point of entry.
The Greenpoint infestation was first reported by Ingram Carner of Greenpoint on a Saturday in August 1996 and identified by Cornell University entomologist Richard Hoebeke on August 19. The Amityville infestation was brought, inadvertently, from Brooklyn by the Mike Ryan Tree Services, a tree pruning company, which performs work for the NYNEX telephone company.
Timeline of discoveries 
- August 19, 1996: identified in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NYC
- Feb 1999: Bayside, Queens
- July 1999: Flushing, Queens
- August 1999: Upper East Side, Manhattan
- June 2000: Lower East Side, Manhattan
- July 2000: Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Queens
- October 2001: FDR Drive & 34th St, Manhattan
- January 2002: Central Park, Manhattan
- March 2003: Forest Park, Queens
- April 2003: Kew Gardens Hills, Queens
- September 2003: Mount Olivet Cemetery, Queens
- More sites have been found in 2004 onward
- September 23, 1996: discovered in Amityville, NY
- October 17, 1997: discovered in Lindenhurst, NY
- July 13, 1998: discovered in Ravenswood neighborhood, Chicago, IL
- September 8, 1999: discovered in Islip, NY
- October 11, 2002: discovered in Jersey City, NJ
- September 18, 2003: discovered in Toronto, ON and Vaughan, ON
- August 17, 2004: discovered in Carteret, Rahway, and Linden, NJ
- June 16, 2005: 2 live adult ALBs found outside of a warehouse in Sacramento, CA
- April 25, 2006: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine, Asian Longhorned Beetle Cooperative Eradication Program launched an ALB curriculum program as a pilot program geared towards Chicago middle and high school students. "Beetlebusters" still teaches students about the biology of the ALB and promotes students, teachers and families to search ALB host trees in backyards, schoolyards and the community for signs of infestation and to report the results of the search to a special Beetlebusters website. The Beetlebusters program expanded a summer 2005 camp project into schools.
- March 1, 2007: ALB Cooperative Eradication Program inspectors discovered a new Asian long-horned beetle infestation on Prall's Island in Richmond County, New York. (Detailed APHIS timeline at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/asian_lhb/chron-2000-pres.shtml)
- March 22, 2007: An ALB-infested tree was found on Staten Island, New York, within ¼ mile (400 m) of the infestation found on Prall's Island on March 1, 2007. This was the first infested tree found in Staten Island.
- May 2007: USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service launched extensive outreach and public education project that urged residents of Chicago to look for signs of the Asian long-horned beetle. The "Countdown to Eradication" had begun. No ALBs were discovered during the summer and fall months in Chicago.
- April 7, 2008: New Jersey Secretary of Agriculture Charles M. Kuperus joined with United States Department of Agriculture representatives to declare Jersey City and Hoboken free of the tree-killing Asian long-horned beetle. ALB was declared officially eradicated from Hudson County, New Jersey.
- April 17, 2008: The Asian long-horned beetle was declared eradicated from Illinois at an event held in the Ravenswood neighborhood of Chicago, the same neighborhood where beetles were found infesting trees in 1998.
- August 7, 2008: discovery reported in Worcester, MA.
- September 28, 2008: regulated area (due to infestation) includes the city of Worcester, MA, the town of West Boylston, MA, and parts of the towns of Boylston, MA; Holden, MA; Shrewsbury, MA.
- July 6, 2010: Discovery reported in Jamaica Plain, MA.
- May 9, 2011: Regulated area in central Massachusetts expanded to include a section of northeastern Auburn, MA
- June 17, 2011: Discovery reported in Bethel, OH
- March 28, 2012: Larvae discovered by the UK's Forestry Commission in Paddock Wood, Kent, United Kingdom.
- July 13, 2012: Found in the city of Winterswijk, the [Netherlands]
Eradication efforts 
Over 1,550 trees in Chicago have been cut down and destroyed to eradicate ALB from Chicago. In New York, over 6000 infested trees resulted in the removal of over 18,000 trees; New Jersey's infestation of over 700 trees lead to the removal and destruction of almost 23,000 trees, Infested trees continue to be discovered. 28,000 trees have been removed in Worcester, MA because of the nearly 20,000 trees confirmed to be infested with the Asian longhorned beetle. The December 12, 2008 ice storm likely resulted in significant moving of infested downed limbs because of frantic homeowners clearing debris within the infestation following the devastating ice storm. This has complicated the eradication effort. A Worcester exterminator has had a beetle in his collection since 1997, and USDA APHIS PPQ has confirmed his finding, meaning the beetle has been in Worcester for at least 13 years, giving it a very long time to move about, especially since vehicles were often parked under infested trees, giving the beetles an opportunity to drop onto cars and be transported elsewhere.
The US Federal government is trying to eradicate this species primarily for two reasons:
- If it becomes established it could significantly impact natural forests and urban environment, with an estimated death toll of 1.2 billion trees if it spread nationwide.
- Due to the current limited infestation size, it is believed that eradication efforts can be successful.
The steps that have been taken to eliminate the ALB include:
- Quarantines. Quarantines have been established around infested areas to prevent accidental spread of ALB by people.
- Infested trees cut, chipped and burned. All infested trees are being removed, chipped in place, and the chips are being burned. The stumps of infested trees are ground to below the soil level. All tree removal is done by certified tree care personnel to ensure that the process is completed properly.
- Insecticide treatments. Research is underway to determine the effectiveness of certain insecticides such as imidacloprid against ALB. Insecticidal treatments have begun in New York and Chicago in hopes of preventing and containing infestations. Chicago's program of imidacloprid treatments for healthy trees of potential host species within a one-eighth to one-half mile (200–800 m) radius of infested trees successfully removed Illinois from quarantine in August 2006. As of December 2006, New Jersey's policy was to cut down all healthy trees of the potential host species within a one-eighth to one-quarter mile (200–400 m) radius of infested trees.
- Extensive surveys. All host trees on public and private property located within an established distance from an infested area are surveyed by trained personnel. Infested areas are re-surveyed at least once per year for 3–5 years after the last beetle or infested tree is found.
- Shipping restrictions. The use of Solid Wood Packing Materials (SWPM) for maritime shipping is regulated for adequate treatment methods at certain ports.
US customs regulations were changed on September 18, 1998 (effective December 17, 1998) to require wooden packing materials from China be chemically treated or kiln-dried to prevent further infestations of the Asian long-horned beetle from arriving. Pest inspection, new rules, and public awareness are the key steps to prevention of the spread of the Asian long-horned beetle.
Trees that are being planted to replace host trees include: Serviceberry or Shadbush, Ironwood, Southern catalpa, Turkish filbert, Ginkgo, Honey locust, Kentucky coffeetree, Tuliptree, Dawn redwood, White oak, Swamp white oak, Bur oak, English oak, Japanese lilac, Bald cypress, Basswood, and Little-leaf Linden.
In April of 2013 the Government of Canada announced that the Asian long-horned beetle was eradicated from Canada. It had last been seen in 2007.
Possible outcome from infestation 
Asian long-horned beetles are detrimental to any ecosystem they inhabit. In China, approximately 40% of poplar plantations have been damaged, meaning the wood is good only for packing material. In the Ningxia Province of China, more than 50 million trees were destroyed over a three-year period because of the beetles. These beetles have the ability to significantly alter the composition of North American hardwood forests. It is estimated that nearly one-third of all trees would have to be destroyed in the United States if Anoplophora glabripennis were to spread throughout the country. The potential for widespread distribution in North America and the attack of a wide range of host trees is also very possible.
See also 
- Hoebeke, E. Richard; Lingafelter, Steven M. (2002). Revision of the genus Anoplophora (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Washington, D.C: Entomological Society of Washington. ISBN 0-9720714-1-5.
- Jiafu Hu, Sergio Angeli, Stefan Schuetz, Youqing Luo & Ann E. Hajek (2009). "Ecology and management of exotic and endemic Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis". Agricultural and Forest Entomology 11 (4): 359–375. doi:10.1111/j.1461-9563.2009.00443.x.
- Robert A. Haack, Franck Hérard, Jianghua Sun & Jean J. Turgeon (2009). "Managing invasive populations of Asian long-horned beetle and citrus long-horned beetle: a worldwide perspective". Annual Review of Entomology 55: 521–546. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-112408-085427. PMID 19743916.
- M. A. Keena (2002). "Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) fecundity and longevity under laboratory conditions: comparison of populations from New York and Illinois on Acer saccharum" (PDF). Environmental Entomology 31 (3): 490–498. doi:10.1603/0046-225X-31.3.490.
- Imms' General Textbook of Entomology: Volume 1: Structure, Physiology and Development Volume 2: Classification and Biology. Berlin: Springer. 1977. ISBN 0-412-61390-5.
- Bannister, Anthony; Skaife, Sally; Ledger, John (1979). African insect life. Feltham: Country Life Books. ISBN 0-600-34920-9.
- ""Economic Impacts of Non-Native Forest Insects in the Continental United States" at Journalist's Resource.org".
- "Beetle problem a familiar story". Worcester Telegram & Gazette. 2008-08-24. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- "Beetles found in more trees". Worcester Telegram & Gazette. 2008-10-29. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- "Beetle may be pinned to '97". Worcester Telegram & Gazette. 2008-08-30. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- "Boston readies to battle beetles". The Boston Globe. July 6, 2010.
- "Asian beetle pest eradicated from Canada". CBC News. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-06.
- "Asian Long-horned Beetle eradicated from Canada". News Release. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- APHIS Web - PPQ - Asian Longhorned Beetle - New Pest Advisory Group Report[dead link]
- "Press Release". Nj.gov. 2002-10-11. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- September 18, 2003 Asian Longhorned Beetle discovered in York Region
- "August 7, 2008 Pest alert: Asian long-horned beetle detected in Massachusetts". Massnrc.org. 2008-08-07. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- "August 7, 2008 Tree-devouring Asian beetle found in Worcester". Boston.com. 2008-08-07. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- "Browning in Greendale". Telegram.com. August 8, 2008. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- "Massachusetts Introduced Pests Outreach Project". Massnrc.org. Archived from the original on 18 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- Jason Markovich (July 6, 2010). "Asian longhorned beetles found in Boston". National Association of State Departments of Agriculture. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
- "Aziatische boktor in Winterswijk". Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Newspaper Archive (dead link as of at least March 16, 2009)
- "June 11, 2010 Detailed Map Showing New York City's Asian long-horned beetle infestation from 2007 to 2010". Pallettruth.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- Mance III, Dave (Winter 2008). "Knots & Bolts: Notes from the Quarantine Zone". Northern Woodlands (Center for Northern Woodlands Education) 15 (4): 18. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
- "A Summary of U.S. Entry Requirements According to 7CFR 319.40". Aphis.usda.gov. 1998-12-17. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- "Requirements for Wood Packing Material Products (SWPM)". Kline.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
- "Asian beetle pest eradicated from Canada". cbc.ca. Apr 5, 2013.
- "Wanted: The Asian Longhorned Beetle" USDA APHIS Publication, May 2008, Suzanne Bond
- Antipin, Judy and Dilley, Thomas. "Chicago vs. Asian Longhorn Beetle: A Portrait of Success"
- Smith, Jennifer. "Monsters in Miniature: An Exotic Invader Threatens U.S. Hardwoods". April 13, 2003 Newsday.com.
- Woodsen, Mary. "Cities Under Siege". American Forests Summer 2000: 7.
- Cavey et al. 1998; Nowak et al. 2001 and references therein; Smith et al. 2001; Hu et al. 2009
- Cavey and February 8, 2000; Smith et al., December 2001
- Cavey and February 8, 2000; Nowak et al., 2001; Smith, June 1999
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Anoplophora glabripennis|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Anoplophora glabripennis|
- USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Asian long-horned beetle site.
- USDA ARS Asian long-horned beetle site
- Beetlebusters--official USDA information website on Asian long-horned beetle
- University of Vermont funded by USDA
- USDA APHIS site summary
- Asian Long-Horned Beetle Center for Invasive Species Research
- Asian Long-horned Beetle, Natural Resources Canada
- Bugged: The Race To Eradicate The Asian Longhorned Beetle Asian long-horned beetle Documentary
- Forest Disturbance Processes - Asian Longhorned Beetle. US Forest Service: Northern Research Station
- Species Profile- Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Asian long-horned beetle.