Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project

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The Gir Forest in the State of Gujarat, India is the last natural habitat of more than 411 wild Asiatic Lions, though plans are afoot to re-introduce some to Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the neighboring State of Madhya Pradesh in India to ensure their longterm survival against epidemics and natural calamities.

The Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project is an initiative of the Indian Government to provide safeguards to the Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) from extinction in the wild by means of reintroduction. The last wild population of the Asiatic Lion is found in the Gir Forest region of the state of Gujarat. The single population faces the threats of epidemics, natural disasters and other anthropogenic factors. The project aims to establish a second independent population of Asiatic Lions at the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.[1] However, the proposed translocation is unpopular in Gujarat and has been bitterly contested by the state government.

History[edit]

Historical and proposed lion reintroduction sites in India

The distribution of Asiatic Lion, once found widely in West and South Asia, dwindled to a single population in the Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary in India.[2] The population at Gir declined to 18 animals in 1893 but increased due to protection and conservation efforts to 284 in 1994.[3] The Gir Wildlife Sanctuary is now highly overpopulated with lions, the 2010 census showed the strength to be 411 lions.[4] There are numerous deaths in the population annually because of ever increasing competition between the human and animal overcrowding. Asiatic lion prides require large territories but there is limited space at Gir wildlife sanctuary, which is boxed in on all sides by heavy human habitation.[1] Gir lions have started moving outwards from the sanctuary and establishing homes outside the protected areas. The lions are now spread over 16,000 square kilometres (6,200 sq mi) in the vicinity of 1050 villages in three contiguous districts - Amreli, Bhavnagar and Junagadh.[5]

Sheopur introduction of 1904[edit]

The Maharaja of Gwalior, on being encouraged by Lord Curzon in 1904, imported cubs of African Lions and attempted to introduce them in the wild in the forests near Sheopur. The introduced lions took to raiding livestock and some even turned to man-eating, subsequent to which they were all eventually tracked down and shot.[6]

The Chandraprabha relocation of 1957[edit]

The concept of reintroduction for purposes of conservation was accepted in 1956 by the Indian Wildlife Board during a meeting of their executive committee at Sasan Gir and the offer by the state government of Uttar Pradesh to host a second population in the Chakia forests was accepted. In 1956 one lion and two lionesses were captured from Gir, placed in the Sakkarbuagh Zoo in Junagadh for nine months and translocated in 1957 to the 96 square kilometres (37 sq mi) Chandra Prabha Sanctuary, newly established for the reintroduction, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. An enclosure was created with a 3 metres (9.8 ft) high barbed wire fence within the sanctuary in which the lions were temporarily housed before being released in the sanctuary. Initially the lions prospered increasing in number to four in 1958, five in 1960, seven in 1962 and eleven in 1965 after which the population died out inexplicably.

Johnsingh (2006) attributes the failure of the translocation to three causes – inadequate area, lack of systematic monitoring using scientific techniques and unrestricted movement of grazing animals throughout the sanctuary possibly leading to conflict with the herders.[1] Small size of area, the long period of captivity in Junagadh zoo, absence of education of the local villagers and lack of conflict resolution mechanism are also listed as contributory factors in Chellam and Johnsingh (1999).[7]

The WII Initiative[edit]

The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) began studying the Asiatic Lion in its habitat in from 1986 onwards and collected fundamental data about the lion, its feeding, use of habitat and ranging habits. Key findings of the study were that the lions largely preyed upon the wild herbivores such as Sambar (Rusa unicolor) and Chital (Axis axis) and that the size of home range was 70 square kilometres (27 sq mi) for females and 140 square kilometres (54 sq mi) for the males.[7] In 1990, the WII proposed the creation of a second wild population of Asiatic lions to safeguard the species against potential calamities in Gujarat’s Gir National Park.[8]

1993 PHVA report[edit]

In 1993, a workshop was held on the Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) of Asiatic lion and the report was presented to the state forest departments in Vadodara, Gujarat. State forest departments were asked to suggest suitable sites for reintroduction and provide the basic ecological data.[7]

During the workshop, a number of teams were formed to focus on varied aspects of the conservation biology of the Asiatic lion such as monitoring, habitat (further subdivided into Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan sub-groups), population modelling, prey-base requirements, lion-human interactions, translocation, captive zoo animals, public education, veterinary, reproductive and genetic aspects etc.[9]

The sites were assessed and ranked for suitability as follows:[9]

The PHVA report strongly favoured the scientific management of reintroduction of Asiatic Lions to another site:[9]

The overwhelming consensus of the Workshop was that an alternative habitat for the Asiatic lion must be established with all possible speed, but without compromise of the accepted strategies and principles governing systematic and scientific reintroduction. This should be done simultaneously with strengthening effective protection and management of the Gir Forest and assuring the viability of the captive population and alternative genetic resources.

The PHVA deliberations were followed by visits to the three most promising site, viz Kuno, Darrah-Jawaharsagar and Sitamata WLS by a survey team of WII headed by Dr Ravi Chellam. The team evaluated sites over various parameters and compared the same with respect to Gir Forest for determining the suitability of sites. They presented their findings in 1995 to the Government of India and the state forest departments.[7][9] WII researchers confirmed that the Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary was the most promising location to re-establish a free ranging population of the Asiatic lions and in 2007 certified it ready to receive its first batch of translocated lions.[10]

Project Framework[edit]

The framework of the Lion Introduction Project emerged from the transformation of a Monitoring Committee, set up by the Government of India, which met on 10 March 2004 for effective implementation of the reintroduction at Kuno.[11]

At the meeting the WII Site Survey was examined and it was understood that Kuno Palpur Sanctuary was the most suitable site for reintroduction. The Committee formulated a three phase framework for the conservation project to last for two decades as follows :[11]

  • During the first phase, slated from 1995-2000, the 24 villages would be shifted out of the sanctuary and the habitat would be improved.
  • The second phase would last from 2000 to 2005 and would include fencing off of the lion reintroduction site, the actual trans-location, as well as research and monitoring.
  • The final phase III would last from 2005 to 2015 and would focus on eco-development of the region.

At that point in time, the project was in Phase II and 18 of the 24 villages had been rehabilitated from Kuno. The refusal of Gujarat state to provide lions was mentioned during this meeting by the Chief Wildlife Warden of Gujarat. A number of steps were approved with consensus which included the engaging of the Gujarat State Government as to the necessity of the project, preparation of a trans-location road map, fresh assessment of prey base of Kuno by WII and continued funding support for welfare measures and habitat improvement for the existing fauna at Kuno.[11]

Lion reintroduction at Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary[edit]

Asiatic Lion
Asiatic Lioness, named MOTI, at Bristol Zoo, England (1996).

Establishing the wildlife sanctuary[edit]

The Madhya Pradesh state forest department notified 345 square kilometres (133 sq mi) of the Kuno Palpur area as a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1981.[12] In April 2002, a separate Wildlife Division was established for Kuno, effectively increasing the protected area for wildlife to 1,268.861 square kilometres (489.910 sq mi).[11]

Rehabilitation of villagers[edit]

Twenty four villages of the Sahariya tribe, comprising 1545 families, were moved out from the core area and rehabilitated by the state government with assistance from the Central Government. Due to a paucity of suitable revenue lands in the vicinity of Kuno, the state government proposed relocating the villages on degraded protected forests, a move approved by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) of the Government of India, which granted its approval under Section 2 of the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980 for diversion of 3,395.9 hectares (8,391 acres). By 2002-2003, all 24 villages and the identified families were relocated outside Kuno and the former village area converted into grasslands.[11]

The Madhya Pradesh state government informed the Supreme Court that each family was given 2 hectares (4.9 acres) of cultivable land, in addition to 500 square metres (600 sq yd) for housing along with building constructional material costing Rs 1,00,000/- per house. The net outflow to the Central Government was Rs.15 crores.[11]

Major gaps remain in the implementation of the rehabilitation measures, with villagers alleging that they have got little of the rehabilitation package they were promised.[13][14] The negative economic impact of the displacement to villagers from Kuno sanctuary has raised a controversy over the merits of species preservation via dislocation of human populations living inside Protected Areas.[15] NGOs, such as the Samrakshan Trust, have been working for better rehabilitation of villagers who agreed to move out of the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary.[16]

Opposition by the Gujarat government[edit]

In 2004, the state government refused to part with the first pride of 19 animals planned for relocation. The state considers the lions as "heritage of the state" and the issue of handing over lions has become a political issue.[17] Mangubhai Patel, then State Forest Minister, went on record to state that:[18]

There is no need to shift lions from Gir. We will ensure their survival here.

The Gujarat state government has, over time, made various arguments against translocating lions to Madhya Pradesh (MP), such as that the Kuno sanctuary was not suitable lion habitat and that it had inadequate prey base, that MP had been unable to provide adequate protection to tigers in its Panna National Park and the lions if reintroduced there would be in danger, that the proposed reintroduction of African cheetahs in Kuno rendered it unsuitable for lion reintroduction.[19]

Attacking the logic of a second home for lion outside the state, the Gujurat State Wildlife Department proposed new homes for lions in the Barda Wildlife Sanctuary[20] and Bhavnagar Amreli Forest instead.[21] Gir's lions have spread beyond the protective area and the measures of the state to engage this phenomenon are being portrayed as providing adequate dispersal to the lion population to prevent disease. Gujarat also played an emotional card declaring before the Supreme Court that the lion was inextricably bound to the culture of Gujarat and that it was a "family member", hence could not be provided for translocation to Kuno.

This stand of Gujarat suffered a setback when the Supreme Court of India on 15 April 2013, acknowledged translocation to Kuno as being in the best interest of the species and rejected the Gujarat Government's objections, instead ordering the translocation to be carried out within six months. A bandh was called in the villages adjoining the Sasan Gir region on 18 April 2013 protesting the Supreme Court decision.[22]

Supreme Court Verdict and aftermath[edit]

In light of the State Government of Gujarat's refusal to permit reintroduction of Asiatic Lions, a writ petition was filed in 1995 by the Centre for Environment Law and WWF-I in the Indian Supreme Court to get the Gujarat State Government to release a few prides of Asiatic lions reintroduction in Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary. The Indian Supreme Court had fast tracked the case and the judgement was delivered on 16 April 2013, permitting the reintroduction of lions to Kuno over-ruling the objections of the Gujarat Government.[11]

The Gujarat Government has filed on 1 July 2013 for a review in the Supreme Court of its 16 April ruling. In its petition, the Gujarat state government has claimed that:

top carnivores have never been successfully translocated

The state has put forward the argument that translocation would break social bonds between members of groups or prides, which are vital for lion survival. The reported presence of tiger cubs in Palpur-Kuno was emphasised saying that it could result in conflict between these top predators. The state proposed, instead, a second home for lions within Gujarat itself, claiming it would have numerous advantages including being in tune with international guidelines.[23] The continued reluctance of the state to part with lions for translocation has come under criticism by prominent environmentalists.[24]

Post the verdict, fears have been voiced by Gujarati environmentalists over the gun culture of Madhya Pradesh and number of firearms in Sheopur, the region where the Kuno Palpur sanctuary is located and it is suggested that translocation to such an area would be in violation of IUCN norms on the subject.[25] With the release of IUCN guidelines on translocation, opponents of the project have cited from the provisions and also claimed that the history of translocations especially in India is dismal and hence translocation is not favoured.[26][27] The natural spread of over-populated lions from an original range of over 1,412 square kilometres (545 sq mi) to an area extending over 10,500 square kilometres (4,100 sq mi), is considered to mitigate against the risk of epidemic disease.[28]

Translocation plan[edit]

The plan is to reintroduce a pride or two of wild, free-ranging Asiatic Lions from Gir Forest in the neighboring Indian state of Gujarat to start with.[29]

In compliance with the Supreme Court order of 15 April 2013, the Ministry of Environment and Forests has constituted a panel for deciding the best course of action in translocation of animals to Gir. The panel comprises 12 members including member secretary National Tiger Conservation Authority, the Chief Wildlife Wardens of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, member Wildlife Institute of India, and scientists Drs Ravi Chellam, Y.V. Jhala, NK Ranjeet Singh and PR Sinha. The panel will advice both the states on technical aspect of transloction, decide the composition of animals to be translocated, select the prides and animals, supervise the translocation, monitor it and periodically report to the Ministry.[30] During the first deliberations on 29 July 2013, the panel acceded the need to follow the recent IUCN translocation guidelines but brushed aside Gujarat's objections against the process. A two member team comprising Dr Ravi Chellam and Dr Y.V. Jhala has been set up to decide the translocation protocol and report within six weeks.[31]

Gujarat objected to meeting of the 12 member panel on 29 July 2013 before its petition had been reviewed and also to the presence of tiger experts on the panel, claiming that lion experts from Gujarat had been ignored.[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Johnsingh, AJT (1 February 2006). Field Days: A Naturalist's Journey Through South and Southeast Asia. Universities Press. pp. 126–138. ISBN 978-81-7371-552-5. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  2. ^ Sunquist, Mel; Sunquist, Fiona (15 August 2002). Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press. p. 297. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  3. ^ Paulson, Mark (1999). "Pride in Place: Reintroduction of Asiatic Lions in Gir Forest, India". Restoration and Reclamation Review (Dept of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota) 4 (3). Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  4. ^ Shah, Jumana (16 April 2013). "Asiatic lions: Gujarat’s roar in court lacked substance". DailyBhaskar.com. DB Corp Ltd, Noida, UP, India. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  5. ^ Parmar, Vijaysinh (15 July 2013). "Asiatic lions have homes in over 1,000 Saurashtra villages". ndiatimes.com (Bennett & Coleman Ltd). Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  6. ^ Past efforts to settle lions in Madhya Pradesh had failed, May 17, 2012, Ahmedabad (Gujarat) Edition, Times of India.
  7. ^ a b c d Chellam, Ravi; Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1999). "Translocating Asiatic Lions, India". Re-introduction News (18): 11–13. ISSN 1560-3709. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  8. ^ Mazoomdar, Jay (27 April 2013). "Science Trumps Politics". Tehelka magazine. Tehelka.com. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Ashraf, N.V.K.; Chellam, Ravi; Sharma, D.; Molur, Sanjay; Walker, Sally, eds. (May 1995). "Asiatic Lion Report". Population & Habitat Viability Assessment P.H.V.A. and Global Animal Survival Plan Workshops (18–21 October 1993, Baroda, India). Zoo Outreach Organisation / CBSG, India. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  10. ^ Johnsingh, A.J.T.; Goyal, S.P.; Qureshi, Qamar (2007). "Preparations for the reintroduction of Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica into Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, India". Oryx (Cambridge University Press) (41): 93–96. doi:10.1017/S0030605307001512. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "Supreme Court judgement - Centre for Environment Law, WWF-I Versus Union of India & Others : On the issue of a second home for Asiatic Lion". The Judgement Information System. Government of India. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2013. 
  12. ^ "Kuno Sanctuary". Madhya Pradesh State Forest Department. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  13. ^ Bunsha, Dionne (21 May 2003). "Left high and dry". Frontline 22 (11). Retrieved 12 Jun 2013. 
  14. ^ Samrakshan Trust (2006). "The Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary – a new home for Asiatic Lions?". Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  15. ^ Kabra, Asmita (September 2007). "Preservation via Dislocation". Seminar. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  16. ^ "The Kuno Initiative". Samrakshan Trust. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  17. ^ Mitra, Sudipta (2005). Gir Forest and the saga of the Asiatic lion. Indus Publishing. pp. 226–227. ISBN 978-81-7387-183-2. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  18. ^ Times News Network (2 September 2004). "Gir will be lions' only home: Gujarat". The Times of India - City - Ahmedabad (Bennet & Coleman). Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  19. ^ "Gujarat's Asiatic lions must be shared - Indian court". BBC News Asia. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  20. ^ Jha, Paras K. & Gagdekar, Roxy (4 April 2012). "Lions' roar to echo in Porbandar's Barda Sanctuary". DNA. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  21. ^ Pathak, Anil (19 March 2006). "New sanctuary for lions to come up at Jesar". The Times Of India. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  22. ^ PTI (18 April 2013). "Sasan bandh against SC verdict on trans-location of lions". Hindustan Times News. HT Media Ltd. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  23. ^ Mahapatra, Dhananjay (2 July 2013). "Reluctant to part with lions, Gujarat moves SC". Times of India (Bennett & Coleman). Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  24. ^ Agence France-Presse (2 July 2013). "Environmentalists slam Gujarat's fight over Gir lions". NDTV.com. NDTV Convergence Limited. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  25. ^ Kaushik, Himanshu (29 April 2013). "Can't send lions to gun country: International Union for Conservation of Nature norms". Times of India (Bennett & Coleman). Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  26. ^ Kaushik, Himanshu (19 July 2013). "Translocating animals outside home turf is high risk: International Union for Conservation of Nature". Indiatimes.com (Bennett & Coleman Ltd.). Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  27. ^ Kaushik, Himanshu (28 Jun 2013). "10 translocations have failed worldwide". Indiatimes.com (Bennett & Coleman Ltd.). Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  28. ^ Chaturvedi, Devika (4 September 2013). "Modi, Chouhan continue sparring over translocation of lions". IndiaToday.in. Living Media India Limited. Retrieved 28 September 2013. 
  29. ^ Bunsha, Dionne (20 May 2007). "A kingdom too small". Frontline 22 (10). Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  30. ^ Naveen, P. (23 July 2013). "Gir lions to roar in MP soon". timesofindia.com (Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.). Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  31. ^ Kaushik, Himanshu & Naveen, P. (30 July 2013). "Translocation of Asiatic lions: Gujarat’s objections brushed aside". timesofindia.com (Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.). Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  32. ^ Kaushik, Himanshu (27 July 2013). "Gujarat objects to tiger experts on panel to shift Gir lions". Indiatimes.com (Bennett & Coleman Ltd.). Retrieved 30 July 2013. 

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