Associate professor (frequently capitalized as Associate Professor) is an academic title that can have different meanings. In North America and universities elsewhere using the North American system, it is a position between assistant professor and a full professorship. In a number of Commonwealth countries, the title, associate professor, is often used in place of reader, which is used in the United Kingdom and a number of other Commonwealth universities, and denotes a position between senior lecturer, corresponding to associate professor in North America, and a full professorship. It is thus regarded as equivalent to a full professorship in North America. This usage is typical of universities in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Malaysia and other countries.
The University of Western Australia, for example, changed to the American-style system in 2009, and those who until then held the title associate professor received the new title professor, whereas those who until then held the title senior lecturer, received the new title associate professor.