Associated petroleum gas

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Associated petroleum gas (APG), or associated gas, is a form of natural gas which is found with deposits of petroleum, either dissolved in the oil or as a free "gas cap" above the oil in the reservoir.[1][2] Historically, this type of gas was released as a waste product from the petroleum extraction industry. Due to the remote location of many oil fields, either at sea or on land, this gas is simply burnt off in gas flares. When this occurs the gas is referred to as flare gas.[3]

The gas can be utilized in a number of ways after processing: be sold and included in the natural gas distribution networks, used for on-site electricity generation with engines[4] or turbines, reinjected for enhanced oil recovery, or used as feedstock for the petrochemical industry.[5]

Russia is the world leader in the flaring of APG, and flares 30 per cent of the total APG flared globally.[6]

The flaring of APG is controversial as it is a pollutant, a source of global warming[7] and is a waste of a valuable fuel source. APG is flared in many countries where there are significant power shortages.[8] In the United Kingdom, gas may not be flared without written consent from the UK Government in order to prevent unnecessary wastage and to protect the environment.[9]

The World Bank estimates that over 150 billion cubic metres of natural gas are flared or vented annually. This amount of gas is worth approximately 30.6 billion dollars and is equivalent to 25 percent of the United States's yearly gas consumption or 30 percent of the European Union's annual gas consumption,[10] a resource that could be useful using Gas to liquids (GTL).

Approximate APG composition[edit]

Component Chemical formula Volume fraction (%) Weight fraction (%)[11]
Methane CH
4
81 60
Ethane C
2
H
6
5.5 7.7
Propane C
3
H
8
6.6 13.5
Butane C
4
H
10
4.0 10.8
Pentane C
5
H
12
1.4 4.8
Nitrogen N
2
1.0 1.3
Carbon dioxide CO
2
0.17 0.33

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Røland, Tonje Hulbak (2010). "Associated Petroleum Gas in Russia: Reasons for Non-utilization". FNI Report 13/2010 (Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute): 53. http://www.fni.no/doc&pdf/FNI-R1310.pdf.
  2. ^ "Glossary of terms used in Petroleum Reserves/Resources Definitions". The Society of Petroleum Engineers. 2005. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "Flare gas - Oilfield Glossary". Schlumberger Limited. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  4. ^ "Associated Petroleum Gas in Gas Engines". Clarke Energy. Retrieved 25 November 2011. 
  5. ^ (Roland 2010 cites Knizhnikov, A. and N Poussenkova (2009) ‘Russian Associated Gas Utilization: Problems and Prospects’, Annual Project Report Environment and Energy: International Context Issue 1. Moscow: World Wildlife Fund and Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  6. ^ "Flaring Up - Companies Pay High Costs to be Green". Oil&Gas Eurasia. 26 April 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  7. ^ "Gas flaring in Nigeria" (Press release). London. Friends of the Earth. October 2004. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  8. ^ Walker, Andrew (13 January 2009). "Nigeria's gas profits go up in smoke". Nigeria. BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  9. ^ "Atmospheric Emission - Flaring". Oil & Gas UK. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  10. ^ "World Bank, GGFR Partners Unlock Value of Wasted Gas". World Bank Group. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  11. ^ "Попутный нефтяной газ: основные способы переработки – утилизации ПНГ" [Associated Petroleum Gas (APG): Basic Methods of Processing and Utilization] (in Russian). New Generation.