Association for Computing Machinery

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Association for Computing Machinery
"acm" in blue circle with gray rim, surrounded by blue diamond
Formation 1947
Type 501(c)(3) not-for-profit membership corporation
Headquarters New York City
Membership 100,000
President
Alex Wolf
Website www.acm.org

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a U.S.-based international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947 and is the world's largest[1] scientific and educational computing society. It is a not-for-profit professional membership group.[2] Its membership is more than 100,000 as of 2011. Its headquarters are in New York City.

The ACM and the IEEE Computer Society are the primary US umbrella organizations for academic and scholarly interests in computing. Unlike the IEEE, the ACM is solely dedicated to computing.

Activities[edit]

Street view of top half of skyscraper against the sky; its outside is dominated by vertical black and white lines
Two Penn Plaza site of the ACM headquarters in New York City

ACM is organized into over 170 local chapters and 35 Special Interest Groups (SIGs), through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 college and university chapters. The first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

Many of the SIGs, like SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting innovations in certain fields. The groups also publish a large number of specialized journals, magazines, and newsletters.

ACM also sponsors other computer science related events such as the worldwide ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest (ICPC), and has sponsored some other events such as the chess match between Garry Kasparov and the IBM Deep Blue computer.

Services[edit]

ACM Press publishes a prestigious[citation needed] academic journal, Journal of the ACM, and general magazines for computer professionals, Communications of the ACM (also known as Communications or CACM) and Queue. Other publications of the ACM include:

Although Communications no longer publishes primary research, and is not considered a prestigious venue, many of the great debates and results in computing history have been published in its pages.

ACM has made almost all of its publications available to paid subscribers online at its Digital Library and also has a Guide to Computing Literature. Individual members additionally have access to Safari Books Online and Books24x7. The ACM also offers insurance, online courses, and other services to its members.

Digital Library[edit]

The ACM Digital Library contains a comprehensive archive starting in the 1950s of the organization's journals, magazines, newsletters and conference proceedings. Online services include a forum called Ubiquity and Tech News digest. There is an extensive underlying bibliographic database containing key works of all genres from all major publishers of computing literature. This secondary database is a rich discovery service known as The ACM Guide to Computing Literature.

ACM adopted a hybrid OA publishing model in 2013. Authors who do not choose to pay the OA fee must grant ACM publishing rights by either a copyright transfer agreement or a publishing license agreement. See.[4]

ACM was a "green" publisher before the term was invented. Authors may post documents on their own websites and in their institutional repositories with a link back to the ACM Digital Library's permanently maintained Version of Record.

All metadata in the Digital Library is open to the world, including abstracts, linked references and citing works, citation and usage statistics, as well as all functionality and services. Other than the free articles, the full-texts are accessed by subscription.

Competition[edit]

ACM's primary historical competitor has been the IEEE Computer Society, which is the largest subgroup of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The IEEE focuses more on hardware and standardization issues than theoretical computer science, but there is considerable overlap with ACM's agenda. They occasionally cooperate on projects like developing computing curricula.[5] Some of the major awards in Computer science are given jointly by ACM and the IEEE–CS.[6]

There is also a mounting challenge to the ACM's publication practices coming from the open access movement. Some authors see a centralized peer–review process as less relevant and publish on their home pages or on unreviewed sites like arXiv. Other organizations have sprung up which do their peer review entirely free and online, such as Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR), Journal of Machine Learning Research (JMLR) and the Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology.

Membership grades[edit]

In addition to student and regular members, ACM has several advanced membership grades to recognize those with multiple years of membership and "demonstrated performance that sets them apart from their peers".[7]

Fellows[edit]

The ACM Fellows Program was established by Council of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1993 "to recognize and honor outstanding ACM members for their achievements in computer science and information technology and for their significant contributions to the mission of the ACM."

There are presently about 500 Fellows[8] out of about 60,000 professional members.[when?]

Distinguished Members[edit]

In 2006 ACM began recognizing two additional membership grades, one which was called Distinguished Members. Distinguished Members (Distinguished Engineers, Distinguished Scientists, and Distinguished Educators) have at least 15 years of profession experience and 5 years of continuous ACM membership and who "have made a significant impact on the computing field". Note that in 2006 when the Distinguished Members first came out, one of the three levels was called "Distinguished Member" and was changed about two years later to "Distinguished Educator". Those who already had the Distinguished Member title had their titles changed to one of the other three titles.

Senior Members[edit]

Also in 2006, ACM began recognizing Senior Members. Senior Members have ten or more years of professional experience and 5 years of continuous ACM membership.

Chapters[edit]

ACM has three kinds of chapters: Special Interest Groups,[9] Professional Chapters, and Student Chapters.[10]

Special Interest Groups[edit]

  • SIGACCESS: Accessible Computing
  • SIGACT: Algorithms and Computation Theory
  • SIGAda: Ada Programming Language
  • SIGAPP: Applied Computing
  • SIGARCH: Computer Architecture
  • SIGAI: Artificial Intelligence
  • SIGBED: Embedded Systems
  • SIGCAS: Computers and Society
  • SIGCHI: Computer–Human Interaction
  • SIGCOMM: Data Communication
  • SIGCSE: Computer Science Education
  • SIGDA: Design Automation
  • SIGDOC: Design of Communication
  • SIGecom: Electronic Commerce
  • SIGEVO: Genetic and Evolutionary Computation
  • SIGGRAPH: Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques
  • SIGHPC: High Performance Computing
  • SIGIR: Information Retrieval
  • SIGITE: Information Technology Education
  • SIGKDD: Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
  • SIGMETRICS: Measurement and Evaluation
  • SIGMICRO: Microarchitecture
  • SIGMIS: Management Information Systems
  • SIGMM: Multimedia
  • SIGMOBILE: Mobility of Systems, Users, Data and Computing
  • SIGMOD: Management of Data
  • SIGOPS: Operating Systems
  • SIGPLAN: Programming Languages
  • SIGSAC: Security, Audit, and Control
  • SIGSAM: Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation
  • SIGSIM: Simulation and Modeling
  • SIGSOFT: Software Engineering
  • SIGSPATIAL: Spatial Information
  • SIGUCCS: University and College Computing Services
  • SIGWEB: Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Web

Professional Chapters[edit]

As of 2011, ACM has professional & SIG Chapters in 56 countries.[11]

Student chapters[edit]

As of 2014, there exist ACM student chapters in 41 different countries.[12]

These chapters include:

Conferences[edit]

The ACM sponsors numerous conferences listed below. Most of the special interest groups also have an annual conference. ACM conferences are often very popular publishing venues and are therefore very competitive. For example, the 2007 SIGGRAPH conference attracted about 30000 visitors, and CIKM only accepted 15% of the long papers that were submitted in 2005.

The ACM is a co–presenter and founding partner of the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing (GHC) with the Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology.[24]

There are some conferences hosted by ACM student branches; this includes Reflections Projections, which is hosted by UIUC ACM.[citation needed]

Awards[edit]

The ACM presents or co–presents a number of awards for outstanding technical and professional achievements and contributions in computer science and information technology.[25]

Leadership[edit]

The President of the ACM for 2012–2014[26] is Vint Cerf, an American computer scientist, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet". He is the successor of Alain Chesnais (2010–2012),[27] a French citizen living in Toronto where he runs his company named Visual Transitions and Wendy Hall of the University of Southampton.

ACM is led by a Council consisting of the President, Vice–President, Treasurer, Past President, SIG Governing Board Chair, Publications Board Chair, three representatives of the SIG Governing Board, and seven Members–At–Large. This institution is often referred to simply as "Council" in Communications of the ACM.

Infrastructure[edit]

ACM has five “Boards” that make up various committees and subgroups, to help Headquarters staff maintain quality services and products. These boards are as follows:

  1. Publications Board
  2. SIG Governing Board
  3. Education Board
  4. Membership Services Board
  5. Professions Board

ACM–W: Association for Computing Machinery Committee on Women in Computing[edit]

ACM–W,[28] the ACM's committee on women in computing, supports, celebrates, and advocates for women in computing. Dr. Anita Borg was a great supporter of ACM–W. ACM–W's main programs are regional women in computing conferences, ACM-W chapters, and scholarships for women CS students to attend research conferences. In India and Europe these activities are overseen by ACM-W India and ACM-W Europe respectively.

Athena Lectures[edit]

The ACM-W holds annual Athena Lectures, to honor outstanding women researchers who have made fundamental contributions to computer science, starting from 2006. Speakers are nominated by SIG officers.[29]

Publications[edit]

In 1997, ACM Press published Wizards and Their Wonders: Portraits in Computing (ISBN 0897919602), written by Christopher Morgan, with new photographs by Louis Fabian Bachrach. The book is a collection of historic and current portrait photographs of figures from the computer industry.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Indiana University Media Relations". indiana.edu. Retrieved 2012–10–02. 
  2. ^ "ACM 501(c)3 Status as a group". irs.gov. Retrieved 2012–10–01. 
  3. ^ Wakkary, R.; Stolterman, E. (2011). "WELCOME: Our first interactions". Interactions 18: 5. doi:10.1145/1897239.1897240.  edit
  4. ^ "ACM Author Rights". Acm.org. 
  5. ^ Joint Task Force of Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Association for Information Systems. "Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report". 
  6. ^ See, e.g., Ken Kennedy Award
  7. ^ "ACM Senior Members–An Overview". Acm.org. 
  8. ^ "List of ACM Fellows". Fellows.acm.org. Retrieved 2012–06–07. 
  9. ^ "ACM Special Interest Groups". Archived from the original on July 27, 2010 <!––DASHBot––>. Retrieved August 7, 2010. 
  10. ^ "ACM Chapters". Retrieved August 7, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Worldwide Professional Chapters". Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). Retrieved 2012-12-27. 
  12. ^ "Chapters Listing by Geographic Region — Association for Computing Machinery". Campus.acm.org. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  13. ^ "acm.web.auth.gr". acm.web.auth.gr. 2012-11-26. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  14. ^ "acm.nitc.ac.in". acm.nitc.ac.in. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  15. ^ "nitsurat.acm.org". nitsurat.acm.org. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  16. ^ "acm.pdx.edu". acm.pdx.edu. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  17. ^ "USC Chapter of ACM". uscacm.org. 
  18. ^ "acmutpa.org". acmutpa.org. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  19. ^ "Virginia Tech chapter of the ACM". 
  20. ^ "Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM)". Cikmconference.org. 
  21. ^ "GECCO – 2009". Sigevo.org. 
  22. ^ "Hypertext 2009". Ht2009.org. 
  23. ^ "Joint Conference on Digital Library (JCDL)–Home". JCDL. 
  24. ^ "Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, Largest Gathering of Women in Computing, Attracts Researchers, Industry". Retrieved June 27, 2011. 
  25. ^ "ACM Awards". Retrieved April 26, 2012. 
  26. ^ "ACM Elects Vint Cerf as President". Acm.org. May 25, 2012. 
  27. ^ "ACM Elects New Leaders Committed to Expanding International Initiatives". Acm.org. June 9, 2010. 
  28. ^ women.acm.org
  29. ^ "ACM-W Athena Lecturers Award Winners". ACM. Retrieved 2013-12-01. 
  30. ^ "Berkeley Lab’s Yelick Named “Athena Lecturer” for Contributions to Parallel Programming Languages that Improve Programmer Productivity" (Press release). ACM. 2013-03-21. Retrieved 2013-12-01. 

External links[edit]