Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood
Chairman Bruce Liu
Vice-Chairmen Tam Kwok-kiu
Wong Chi-yung
Founded 26 October 1986
Headquarters Rm. 1104, Sunbeam
Commercial Bldg.,
469–471 Nathan Road,
Yau Ma Tei, Kowloon,
Hong Kong
Ideology Liberalism[1]
Social democracy
Social liberalism
Political position Centre-left
Regional affiliation Pan-democracy camp
Colours           Yellow, green
Legislative Council
1 / 70
District Councils
16 / 507
Politics of Hong Kong
Political parties
Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood
Traditional Chinese 香港民主民生協進會
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 民協

The Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood (ADPL)[2] is a pro-democracy liberal political party in Hong Kong catering to grassroots interest established on 26 October 1986. The current chairman of the party is Bruce Liu.


In general, the ADPL's aims are to:[3]

  • Strive for a high degree of autonomy in Hong Kong under Chinese sovereignty, the implementation of "one country, two systems" principle;
  • Advocate democracy, fight for the full implementation of the direct election of the Legislative Council, safeguard the basic human rights and freedoms of Hong Kong people and Hong Kong's judicial independence;
  • Maintain Hong Kong's prosperity and stability and promote economic development in Hong Kong; and
  • Make a reasonable distribution of social resources, improving the quality of life of the lower and middle classes.

Within the pro-democracy camp, ADPL usually known as more moderate. Besides demanding for the universal suffrage, it placed a greater emphasis on livelihood issues and supported an increase in profits and salary taxes (which would have little impact on the grassroot level) while opposing a sales tax. The group also called for an increase in education and grassroot medical expenses.


The ADPL was originally founded on 26 October 1986 as a political organisation by a group of incumbent Urban Councillors, District Board members, members from mainly four grassroots organisations and professionals, the Association for Democracy and Justice, the Public Policy Research Centre, the New Hong Kong Society and the Sham Shui Po Residents Livelihood Concern Group. The founding chairman was Ding Lik-kiu and vice-chairmen were Frederick Fung Kin-kee and Lee Wing-tat. Since its establishment, it strived for the direct elections in the coming 1988 LegCo elections in the electoral reform debate. It supported the liberal proposals put forward by the coalition of the Group of 190. The ADPL was one of the three major pro-democracy groups and performed fairly well in the local and municipal elections the 1980s with its strategic allies the Meeting Point and the Hong Kong Affairs Society. In the peak period, it had 140 members, 28 District Board members, one Legislative Councillor, 5 municipal councillors.

In 1990, some members of the ADPL (such as Lee Wing-tat and Albert Chan Wai-yip) joined the United Democrats of Hong Kong, which later became the Democratic Party. The ADPL continued to keep its own identity, arguing that it represented grassroots' interest whereas the Democratic Party was more focused on the "middle class"[4] as the party vetoed the ADPL's request of putting two points into the manifesto, the redistribution of resources and a party for lower middle class. However as many members joined the new party, the ADPL's membership dropped significantly to only 70 members, 15 District Board members and 2 municipal councillors.

As the ADPL chairman Frederick Fung was elected to the Legislative Council in 1991 direct election and other members elected to the municipal councils, the ADPL regained its stability and transformed from a political organisation to a political party in 1992.[5] It won one seat in the first direct election of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong (LegCo) in 1991 when chairman Frederick Fung was elected. In the 1995 election, the party won four seats. At the time, due to near-parity in support between pro-Beijing camp and pro-democracy camp in Legco, the stance of the moderate ADPL was influential and often pivotal in controversial issues.

On the issue of the establishment of the Provisional Legislative Council, the ADPL initially opposed but then agreed to join the interim body. This led to a group of 16 members leaving to form the Social Democratic Front.[6] ADPL became the only pro-democracy party in the legislature immediately after the establishment of the HKSAR, keeping four members in the interim body. ADPL members also served on the Preparatory Committee for the establishment of the HKSAR.

The ADPL lost all its seats in the 1998 Legco election. In 2000 election, member Frederick Fung gained back one directly elected seat in the Legco for the ADPL.

At the district level, ADPL traditionally enjoyed a strong support in the Sham Shui Po District, with another base in Tuen Mun District, and numerous seats at other district councils. However the party is unable to gain more seats from this second base.

The ADPL supported the controversial electoral reform package which created five seats in the District Council (Second) functional constituencies nominated by the District Councillors and elected by all voters. Frederick Fung contested for the candidacy in the 2012 Chief Executive election but was defeated by Democratic Party's Albert Ho in the pan-democracy primary election[7][8] He was subsequently re-elected in the new constituency in the 2012 Legco election however Tam Kwok-kiu failed to succeed Fung in the Kowloon West, ADPL's stronghold, for the first time since 1998.

Electoral performance[edit]

Legislative Council elections[edit]

Election Number of
popular votes
 % of
popular votes
Total seats +/−
1991 60,770Steady 4.44Steady 1 0
1 / 60
1995 87,072Increase 9.50Increase 2 1 1
4 / 60
1998 59,034Decrease 3.99Decrease 0 0 0
0 / 60
2000 62,717Increase 4.75Increase 1 0 1
1 / 60
2004 74,671Increase 4.18Decrease 1 0
1 / 60
2008 42,211Decrease 2.79Decrease 1 0
1 / 60
2012 30,634Decrease 1.69Decrease 0 1
1 / 70

Note: Each voter got two votes in the 1991 Election.

Municipal elections[edit]

Election Number of
popular votes
 % of
popular votes
elected seats
1989 21,243Steady 9.99Steady
2 / 15
2 / 12
4 / 27
1991 21,033Decrease 5.37Decrease
2 / 15
0 / 12
2 / 27
1995 38,918Increase 6.98Increase
5 / 32
3 / 27
8 / 59

District Council elections[edit]

Election Number of
popular votes
 % of
popular votes
elected seats
1988 65,338Steady 10.25Steady
27 / 264
1991 27,979Decrease 5.26Decrease
15 / 272
1994 47,740Increase 6.95Increase
29 / 346
1999 38,119Decrease 4.70Decrease
19 / 390
2003 53,264Increase 5.07Increase
25 / 400
2007 52,386Increase 4.60Decrease
17 / 405
2011 45,453Decrease 3.85Decrease
15 / 412


  1. Ding Lik-kiu (1986–89)
  2. Frederick Fung (1989–2007)
  3. Bruce Liu (2007–present)


  1. ^ Davies, Stephen; Roberts, Elfed (1990). Political Dictionary for Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Macmillan Publishers (HK) Ltd. 
  2. ^ Chinese: 香港民主民生協進會 or 民協.
  3. ^ 基本資料. Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood (in Chinese). 
  4. ^ Allen, Jamie (1997). Seeing Red: China's Uncompromising Takeover of Hong Kong. Taylor & Francis. p. 169. ISBN 9810080832. 
  5. ^ Chiu, Stephen Wing Kai; Lui, Tai Lok (2000). The Dynamics of Social Movements in Hong Kong: Real and Financial Linkages and the Prospects for Currency Union. Hong Kong University Press. p. 42. 
  6. ^ Allen, Jamie (1997). Seeing Red: China's Uncompromising Takeover of Hong Kong. Taylor & Francis. p. 176. 
  7. ^ "Ho wins CE race ticket". The Standard. 9 January 2012. 
  8. ^ "投票結果及統計數據". 

External links[edit]