Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the ancient Assyrian dialect of Akkadian, see Akkadian language.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
ܐܬܘܪܝܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Ātûrāyâ, ܣܘܪܝܬ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Sûret, Ashuri, Suryaya, Sooreth
Suret.png
Sûret in written Syriac
(Madnkhaya script)
Pronunciation [surɛt], [surɛθ]
Native to

Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria

Region Northern Iraq, Hakkari Turkey, Urmia Iran
Native speakers
unknown (undated figure of 232,000)[1]
Early forms
Dialects Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (although is considered its own language), Urmian, Iraqi Koine, Tyari, Jilu, Nochiya, Barwari, Baz and Gawar
Language codes
ISO 639-3 aii
Glottolog assy1241[2]

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, or Assyrian, is a Northeastern Neo-Aramaic[3] language spoken by an estimated 250,000 people (1994 SIL estimate) throughout a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia, in northwestern Iran, to the Nineveh plains, and the Irbil, Mosul, Kirkuk and Dahuk regions in northern Iraq, together with parts of southeastern Turkey and the Al Hasakah region of northeastern Syria. In recent years, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic has spread throughout the Assyrian diaspora.[4]

Speakers of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Surayt/Turoyo are ethnic Assyrians and are descendants of the ancient Assyrian inhabitants of Northern Mesopotamia.[5][6][7][8][9] Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is the largest speaking Neo-Aramaic group (232,000 speakers), which follows Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (206,000 speakers) and Surayt/Turoyo (112,000 speakers).[10] More than 90% of Neo-Aramaic speakers either speak Assyrian Neo-Aramaic or the Chaldean Neo-Aramaic variety.[11][12][13]

Despite the terms Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic indicating a separate religious (or even ethnic) identity, both languages and their native speakers originate from, and are indigenous to, the same Upper Mesopotamian region (which was Assyria between the 25th century BC and 7th century AD). Speakers of both languages are regarded as of the same Assyrian ethnicity by historians, linguists, and geneticists.[11] Most speakers are members of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East, with others being members of the Chaldean Catholic Church and Syriac Orthodox Church.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is closely related to Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, both evolving from the same Syriac language, a distinct dialect which evolved in Assyria[13] between the 5th century BC and 1st century AD.[14] There is also some Akkadian vocabulary and influence in the language. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is written from right to left, and it uses the Madnhāyā version of the Syriac alphabet.[15][16]

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is, to a considerable extent, mutually intelligible with Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (which is, at times, considered an Assyrian dialect, being spoken by the same Assyrian people). It is, to a lesser extent, intelligible with Senaya (native to Iranian Kurdistan)[3] and the Jewish Aramaic language of Lishana Deni (Israel).[17] It also has, albeit limited, mutually intelligibility with Turoyo (Turkey and Syria).[18][19]

History[edit]

Aramaic was the language of commerce, trade and communication and became the vernacular language of Assyria in classical antiquity.[20][21][22][23] Aramaic writing has been found as far north as Hadrians Wall in Ancient Britain, in the form of inscriptions in Aramaic, made by Assyrian and Aramean soldiers serving in the Roman Legions in northern England during the 2nd century AD.[24]

By the 1st century AD, Akkadian was extinct, although some loaned vocabulary still survives in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic to this day.[25][26] The Neo-Aramaic languages are ultimately descended from Old Aramaic, the lingua franca in the later phase of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, displacing the East Semitic Assyrian dialect of Akkadian. The Neo-Aramaic languages evolved from Middle Aramaic by the 13th century.

The Syriac language in turn, had evolved from Imperial Aramaic, an Akkadian infused dialect introduced as the lingua franca of Assyria and the Neo Assyrian Empire by Tiglath-Pileser III in the 8th century BC. The term Syrian and thus its derivative Syriac, had originally been 9th century BC Indo-Anatolian and Greek corruptions of Assyria, and specifically meant only Assyria until the 3rd century BC, after which the Seleucid Greeks also applied the term to The Levant and its largely Aramean and Phoenician inhabitants.[27]

Syriac began as an unwritten spoken dialect of Imperial Aramaic in Assyria-northern Mesopotamia, an Akkadian influenced version of the Old Aramaic language which was introduced as the lingua franca of the Neo Assyrian Empire by Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 BC)[28]

The first evidence of such dialects that emerge in Assyria, and begin to influence the written Imperial Aramaic from the 5th century BC. After the conquest of Assyria, southern Mesopotamia and Aramea (Syria) by Alexander the Great, Syriac and other Aramaic dialects gradually lost their status as imperial languages but continued to flourish as lingua francas alongside Ancient Greek. As an official language, Syriac was given a relatively coherent form, style and grammar that is lacking in other Old Eastern Aramaic dialects.[29]

An 11th-century Syriac manuscript.

There is evidence that the adoption of Syriac, the language of the Assyrian people, was to effect mission. Much literary effort was put into the production of an authoritative translation of the Bible into Syriac, the Peshitta (ܦܫܝܛܬܐ Pšīṭtā). At the same time, Ephrem the Syrian was producing the most treasured collection of poetry and theology in the Syriac language. By the 3rd century AD, churches in Edessa began to use Syriac as the language of worship and the language became the literary and liturgical language of many churches in the Fertile Crescent. Syriac was the lingua franca of the Middle East until 900 A.D, when it was superseded by Arabic.

The differences with the Assyrian Church of the East led to the bitter Nestorian schism in the Syriac-speaking world. As a result, Syriac developed distinctive western and eastern varieties. Although remaining a single language with a high level of comprehension between the varieties, the two employ distinctive variations in pronunciation and writing system, and, to a lesser degree, in vocabulary.

The Mongol invasions of the 13th century, and the religiously motivated massacres of Assyrian Christians by Tamurlane further contributed to the rapid decline of the language. In many places outside of northern Mesopotamia (the Assyrian homeland), even in liturgy, it was replaced by Arabic.

Russian linguists studied Assyrian Neo-Aramaic as spoken by immigrant speakers in Georgia and Armenia at the end of the 19th century. They called the language Айсорский, Aysorskiy, from Armenian: ասորի asori. However, by the 1930s, the official name of the language in Russian had become Ассирийский, Assiriyskiy, or Assyrian.[30]

Instability throughout the Middle East over the past century has led to a worldwide diaspora of Assyrian Aramaic-speakers, with many of speakers now living abroad, such as in, North America, Australia or in Europe. Despite this, the Assyrian homeland still has sizable Assyrian Aramaic-speaking communities, particularly Mosul, Irbil, Kirkuk, Dohuk and Hasakah.

Dialects[edit]

The distribution of the Syriac language in the Middle East and Asia
Post 2010, in Iraq, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is mainly spoken in the Nineveh plains and the cities around Mosul, Duhok, Irbil and Kurkuk (magenta).

SIL Ethnologue distinguishes five dialect groups: Urmian, Northern, Central, Western, and Sapna, each with sub-dialects.

Standard literary Assyrian is based on the Urmian dialect and is known as "General Urmian" (since the 1830s), with a second standard dialect derived from General Urmian eveloping in the 20th century, known as "Iraqi Koine".[31]

The Urmia dialect has become the prestige dialect of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic after 1836, when that dialect was chosen by Justin Perkins, an American Presbyterian missionary, for the creation of a standard literary dialect of Assyrian.

In 1852, Perkins' translation of the Bible into General Urmian was published by the American Bible Society with a parallel text of the classical Syriac Peshitta. Mutual intelligibility between the Assyrian dialects is as high as 80%–90%.[32][33]

Grouping[edit]

  • Hakkari group (western):

Iraqi Koine[edit]

During the First World War, many Assyrians living in Ottoman Turkey were forced from their homes, and many of their descendants now live in Iraq. The relocation has led to a separate dialect usually called Iraqi Koine. It is a mixture of the Ashiret dialects (of the above) with General Urmian. Iraqi Koine does not really constitute a new dialect, but an incomplete merger of dialects. Elements of original Ashiret dialects can still be observed in Iraqi Koine, especially in that of older speakers. Today, Iraqi Koine is the predominant use of communication between the majority of the Assyrians.[34]

Iraqi Koine was developed in the urban areas of Iraq (i.e. Baghdad, Basra, Habbaniya and Kirkuk), which became the meccas for the rural Assyrian population. This dialect is a compromise between the thicker rural accents of the mountains (i.e. Tyari) and the prestigious dialect of Urmia. By the end of the 1950s, a good number of Assyrians spoke Iraqi Koine. To note, the emergence of the Koine didn't mean that the rest of the spoken dialects vanished. The Ashiret dialects were still active because some Assyrians remained in the rural areas and the fact that the first generation speakers who relocated in urban areas still maintained their native dialects.[35]

Phonetics[edit]

Koine and Urmian are similar in terms of manner of articulation, place of articulation and with their consonant cluster formations:

  • Like the Urmian dialect, Iraqi Koine would generally use the [t] and [d] sound in words like "mata" (village in English) and "r'qada" (dancing), as instead of [th] and [dh], respectively.
  • The diphthongs /ay/ and /aw/ in words like "qayta" (summer) and "tawra" (cow), as heard in some Ashiret dialects, are changed into long [e] and [o] vowels, respectively.[36]
  • Both Iraqi Koine and Urmian remove the "m" prefix of verbs, as heard in the Ashiret dialects. So for example, "m'parem" (meaning, to cut) would be "parem".

There are, however, some differences between Iraqi Koine and the Urmian dialect:

  • Iraqi Koine uses a [w] as instead of [ʋ].
  • The [eɪ̯] diphthong in "beyta" ('house') used commonly in the Urmian variation is changed to [ɛː].
  • The [uy] diphthong in zuyzeh (money) is realised as [u] in Iraqi Koine.[23]
  • The [ch] in verbs like "chi'akhla" (she eats) is usually realized as [y].

Script[edit]

Main article: Syriac alphabet
The sixth beatitude (Matthew 5:8) from an East Syriac Peshitta.
ܛܘܼܒܲܝܗܘܿܢ ܠܐܲܝܠܹܝܢ ܕܲܕ݂ܟܹܝܢ ܒܠܸܒ̇ܗܘܿܢ܄ ܕܗܸܢ݂ܘܿܢ ܢܸܚܙܘܿܢ ܠܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ܂
Ṭūḇayhōn l-ʾaylên da-ḏḵên b-lebbhōn: d-hennōn neḥzōn l-ʾalāhā.
'Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.'

In the 1930s, following the state policy for minority languages of the Soviet Union, a Latin alphabet for Assyrian was developed and some material published. However, this innovation did not displace the Syriac script.[37]

The Madnhāyā version formed as a form of shorthand developed from the Syriac alphabet and progressed further as handwriting patterns changed. The Madnhāyā version also possesses vowel markings to help foreigners learn and read Syriac. Other names for the script include Swāḏāyā, "conversational", often translated as "contemporary", reflecting its use in writing modern Neo-Aramaic).[38][39]

The alphabet consists of 22 letters, all of which are consonants. In addition to the sounds of the language, the letters of the Syriac alphabet can be used to represent numbers in a system similar to Hebrew and Greek numerals.

The oldest and classical form of the alphabet is ʾEsṭrangēlā (ܐܣܛܪܢܓܠܐ; the name is thought to derive from the Greek adjective στρογγύλη (strongylē, 'rounded'),[40][41]) Although ʾEsṭrangēlā is no longer used as the main script for writing Syriac, it has received some revival since the 10th century.

ܐ    ܒ    ܓ    ܕ    ܗ    ܘ
ܙ    ܚ    ܛ    ܝ    ܟܟ    ܠ
ܡܡ    ܢܢ    ܣ    ܥ    ܦ
ܨ    ܩ    ܪ    ܫ    ܬ

Three letters act as matres lectionis: rather than being a consonant, they indicate a vowel. ʾĀlap̄ (ܐ), the first letter, represents a glottal stop, but it can also indicate a vowel at the beginning or the end of a word. The letter Waw (ܘ) is the consonant w, but can also represent the vowels o and u.

Likewise, the letter Yōḏ (ܝ) represents the consonant y, but it also stands for the vowels i and e. In addition to foreign sounds, a marking system is used to distinguish qūššāyā, 'hard' letters) from rūkkāḵā, 'soft' letters). The letters Bēṯ, Gāmal, Dālaṯ, Kāp̄, , and Taw, all plosives ('hard'), are able to be spirantized into fricatives ('soft').[42]

The system involves placing a single dot underneath the letter to give its 'soft' variant and a dot above the letter to give its 'hard' variant (though, in modern usage, no mark at all is usually used to indicate the 'hard' value).[43][44]

Phonology[edit]

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic has 22 consonants and 3 vowels. The consonantal phonemes are:

transliteration a b g d h w z y k l m n s ʿ p q r š t
letter ܐ ܒ ܓ ܕ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܝ ܟ ܠ ܡ ܢ ܣ ܥ ܦ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ
pronunciation [ʔ], [a] [b] [ɡ], [dʒ] [d], [ð] [h] [w], [v] [z] [x] [tˤ] [j] [k], [x] [l] [m] [n] [s] [eɪ̯], [ʕ] [p], [f] [sˤ] [q] [r] [ʃ] [t], [θ]

Consonants[edit]

Table of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic consonant phonemes
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
plain emphatic
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k ɡ q ʔ
Fricative sibilant s z ʃ
non-sibilant f θ ð x (ɣ) (ʕ) h
Approximant w l j
Trill r
  • The pharyngeal /ʕ/, as heard in ayin (ܥ), is a marginal phoneme that is generally upheld in education or religious speech (such as by Assyrian priests in church mass) and in hymns. Among the majority of Assyrian speakers, however, it would be realized as diphthongs /aɪ̯/ and /eɪ̯/ – Although the letter itself is still usually uttered with /ʕ/.[45]
  • Unlike the other Semitic languages (including Chaldean Neo-Aramaic), the pharyngeal [ħ] is nonexistent.
  • /f/ is a phoneme only in the Tyari dialects. In most of the other Assyrian varieties it merges with /p/.[46]
  • /θ/ and /ð/ are strictly used in the Tyari and Barwari dialects, which respectively merge with /t/ and /d/ in standard Assyrian (Iraqi Koine/Urmian) and other Ashiret dialects.
  • In the Urmian dialect /w/ has a widespread allophone [ʋ] (it may vacillate to [v] for some speakers).[47]
  • In some Urmian and Jilu speakers, /q/ may merge with /k/ into [k].
  • In the Urmian and some Tyari dialects, /ɡ/ merges with /dʒ/ into [].
  • /k/ may be merge with /tʃ/ into [] in Urmian and Nochiya speakers.
  • /ɣ/ is a marginal phoneme that occurs in some words, albeit only for some speakers. For others, it is realized the same as /x/.
  • In some Tyari dialects (such as Ashita), /r/ may be realized as [ɹ]. This is a feature also present in Chaldean Neo-Aramaic.[48]

Vowels[edit]

Vowel phonemes of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (Standard Urmian/Iraqi Koine) are as follows:[49]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ɛ ə
Open a ɑ
  • /ɛ/ can be realized as either open-mid [ɛ] or close-mid [e]. Urmian, Jilu and Nochiya dialects use the latter realization (sometimes even higher [ɪ]). For some words, the Urmian dialect may diphthongized /ɛ/ to [eɪ̯].
  • /i/ may be realized as [ɛ] in the Tyari, Barwari and Baz dialects.
  • /ə/ (a schwa) is mostly realized as [ɪ] in the Tyari and Barwari dialects.
  • /u/ may be realized as [ɔ] and/or [aw] in the Tyari, Baz and Barwari dialects.
  • /a/, which is normally central [ä], is usually front [a] in the Urmian and Nochiya dialects. For some Urmian speakers, [æ] may be used instead. In some Jilu speakers, this vowel is mostly fronted and raised to [ɛ]. In the Tyari and Barwari dialects, it is usually more back [ɑ].[50]
  • /ɑ/ may also be realised as [ɒ], depending on the speaker. It is more rounded and higher in the Urmian dialect, where it is realized as [ɔ].[51]

Two basic diphthongs exist, namely /eɪ̯/ and /aw/. For some words, many dialects have converted them to e and o respectively.

Grammar[edit]

Most Assyrian Neo-Aramaic nouns are built from triliteral roots. Nouns carry grammatical gender (masculine or feminine), they can be either singular or plural in number (a very few can be dual) and can exist in one of three grammatical states (this is somewhat akin to case in Indo-European languages). These states should not be confused with grammatical cases in other languages. Adjectives always agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. Adjectives are in the absolute state if they are predicative, but agree with the state of their noun if attributive.

Most Syriac verbs are built on triliteral roots as well. Finite verbs carry person, grammatical gender (except in the first person) and number, as well as tense and conjugation. The non-finite verb forms are the infinitive and the active and passive participles. The emphatic state became the ordinary form of the noun, and the absolute and construct states were relegated to certain stock phrases (for example, ܒܪ ܐܢܫܐ/ܒܪܢܫܐ, bar nāšā, "man, person", literally "son of man").

The present tense is usually marked with the participle followed by the subject pronoun. However, such pronouns are usually omitted in the case of the third person. This use of the participle to mark the present tense is the most common of a number of compound tenses that can be used to express varying senses of tense and aspect.[52]

Sample phrases[edit]

English Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ܣܘܪܝܬ
Hello (how are you?) Shlamalookh (dakheet?)(male)/Shlamalaakh (female) ܫܠܳܡܳܐ
I'm fine Spyen Ana
What is your name? Moodeeleh Shimakh? (female)/moodeeleh Shimukh? (male)
My name is ___ ' Shemee eeleh' ____ ___ ܑܝܠܹܗ ܫܸܡܝܗ
Love Khooba
Good morning Qedamtakh brikhta (female)/Qadamtookh brikhta (male) ܒܪܝܟ݂ܳܐ ܨܲܦܪ(ܘ)ܟ݂
God bless you Allaha Barekhlakh (female)/Allaha Barekhlukh (male) ܒܳܪܹܟ݂ ܥܲܠ(ܘ)ܟ݂ ܐܲܠܳܗܳܐ
Kiss N'shaqta ܢܘܼܫܲܩܬ݂ܐ
Thank you Baseema (male)/Basimta (female)
Child Yala (Male)/Yalt(h)a (Female) ܝܲܠܘܼܕܳܐ/ܝܲܠܘܼܕܬ݂ܳܐ
Students Talmeeðeh ܬܲܠܡܝܕ݂ܹܐ
Father Baba
Mother Yemmah
God Alaha ܞ
Uncle Khaloowah (Maternal)/Mamoonah (Paternal)
Aunt Khalt(h)a (Maternal) / ʿAmtah (Paternal)
Man/Human Nasha/Bar Nasha
Woman Bakhta
(little) Boy Bruna/Browna ܒܳܪܘܿܢܳܐ
Girl/Daughter Brata/Bratha ܒܪܬ݂ܳܐ
Book Ktava/Ktawa ܟܬ݂ܳܒ݂ܳܐ/ܣܸܦ݂ܪܳܐ
Pen Qalama ܩܲܢܝܳܐ
Go Khoosh/Si ܐ݇ܙܺܠ݇ܐ
Birth Yalda or Brayt(h)a (to create) ܝܲܠܕܳܐ/ܒܪܹܝܬ݂ܳܐ
Come Ta/Hayo/Tetah
Rain M'ṭrah ܡܸܛܪܳܐ
Sun Shimsha ܫܸܡܫܳܐ
Moon Sahra ܣܲܗܪܳܐ
Fish Noona ܢܘܼܢܳܐ
Star Kekhwa or Kawkhva ܟܹܟ݂ܒ݂ܳܐ/ܟܳܘܟ݂ܒ݂ܳܐ
Elder (male) Sawa/Sava ܣܳܒ݂ܳܐ
Elder (female) Sawta ܣܳܒ݂ܬܳܐ
Hand (Y)eeda ܝܕܳܐ
Song Zmarta or Zmartha ܙܡܳܪܬ݂ܳܐ
Marriage Zuwagha/Gwarta ܙܘܘܳܓ݂ܳܐ
Tomorrow Qudmeh
Today D'Yawma/Idyoom ܕܝܲܘܡܳܐ
Death Mota/Mawta ܡܲܘܬܳܐ
Money (plural) Zoozeh/Kisfeh ܙܘܙܹܐ/ܟܸܣܦܹܐ
Heart Liba ܠܹܒܳܐ
Breath Nahpas ܢܲܦܫܳܐ
Head Reesha/Reysha ܪܝܫܳܐ
Dream Khulma ܚܹܠܡܳܐ
Village Mathah/Bnathah ܡܳܬ݂ܳܐ/ܒܢܳܬ݂ܳܐ
Flying Prakha ܦܪܳܚܳܐ
Mirror Nawra ܢܲܘܪܳܐ
River Nahra ܢܲܗܪܳܐ
Ocean Yahma ܝܳܡܳܐ
Hail (type of storm) Bardah ܒܲܪܕܳܐ

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Assyrian Neo-Aramaic at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Assyrian Neo-Aramaic". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b Maclean, Arthur John (1895). Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Syriac: as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, north-west Persia, and the Plain of Mosul: with notices of the vernacular of the Jews of Azerbaijan and of Zakhu near Mosul. Cambridge University Press, London.
  4. ^ Beyer, Klaus; John F. Healey (trans.) (1986). The Aramaic Language: its distribution and subdivisions. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. p. 44. ISBN 3-525-53573-2.
  5. ^ The Fihrist (Catalog): A Tench Century Survey of Islamic Culture. Abu 'l Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq al Nadim. Great Books of the Islamic World, Kazi Publications. Translator: Bayard Dodge.
  6. ^ Herodotus, The Histories, VII.63, s:History of Herodotus/Book 7
  7. ^ From a lecture by J. A. Brinkman: "There is no reason to believe that there would be no racial or cultural continuity in Assyria, since there is no evidence that the population of Assyria was removed." Quoted in Efram Yildiz's "The Assyrians" Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies, 13.1, pp. 22, ref 24
  8. ^ Especially in view of the very early establishment of Christianity in Assyria and its continuity to the present and the continuity of the population, I think there is every likelihood that ancient Assyrians are among the ancestors of modern Assyrians of the area." Biggs, pp. 10
  9. ^ Assyrians After Assyria, Parpola
  10. ^ *MacDonald, Kevin (2004-07-29). "Socialization for Ingroup Identity among Assyrians in the United States". Paper presented at a symposium on socialization for ingroup identity at the meetings of the International Society for Human Ethology, Ghent, Belgium. Based on interviews with community informants, this paper explores socialization for ingroup identity and endogamy among Assyrians in the United States. The Assyrians descent from the population of ancient Assyria (founded in the 24th century BC), and have lived as a linguistic, political, religious, and ethnic minority in Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey since the fall of the Assyrian Empire in 608 BC. Practices that maintain ethnic and cultural continuity in the Near East, the United States and elsewhere include language and residential patterns, ethnically based Christian churches characterized by unique holidays and rites, and culturally specific practices related to life-cycle events and food preparation. The interviews probe parental attitudes and practices related to ethnic identity and encouragement of endogamy. Results are being analyzed. 
  11. ^ a b Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Northeastern Neo-Aramaic". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  12. ^ Blench, 2006. The Afro-Asiatic Languages: Classification and Reference List
  13. ^ a b Khan 2008, pp. 6
  14. ^ Tekoglu, R. & Lemaire, A. (2000). La bilingue royale louvito-phénicienne de Çineköy. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des inscriptions, et belleslettres, année 2000, 960-1006.
  15. ^ The Nestorians and their Rituals; George Percy Badger.
  16. ^ A Short History of Syriac Christianity; W. Stewart McCullough.
  17. ^ Heinrichs, Wolfhart (ed.) (1990). Studies in Neo-Aramaic. Scholars Press: Atlanta, Georgia. ISBN 1-55540-430-8.
  18. ^ Avenery, Iddo, The Aramaic Dialect of the Jews of Zakho. The Israel academy of Science and Humanities 1988.
  19. ^ Tezel, Aziz (2003). Comparative Etymological Studies in the Western Neo-Syriac (Ṭūrōyo) Lexicon: with special reference to homonyms, related words and borrowings with cultural signification. Uppsala Universitet. ISBN 91-554-5555-7.
  20. ^ "Microsoft Word - PeshittaNewTestament.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16. [dead link]
  21. ^ Bae, C. Aramaic as a Lingua Franca During the Persian Empire (538-333 BCE). Journal of Universal Language. March 2004, 1-20.
  22. ^ Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B. C. by G. R. Driver
  23. ^ a b The British Survey, By British Society for International Understanding, 1968, page 3
  24. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/culture/charlottehigginsblog/2009/oct/13/hadrians-wall
  25. ^ Akkadian Words in Modern Assyrian
  26. ^ Kaufman, Stephen A. (1974),The Akkadian influences on Aramaic. University of Chicago Press
  27. ^ Rollinger, Robert (2006). "The terms "Assyria" and "Syria" again" (PDF). Journal of Near Eastern Studies 65 (4): 284–287. doi:10.1086/511103.
  28. ^ Sabar, Yona (1975). "The impact of Israeli Hebrew on the Neo-Aramaic dialect of the Kurdish Jews of Zakho: a case of language shift". Hebrew Union College Annual (46): 489–508. 
  29. ^ Drijvers, H. J. W. (1980). Cults and beliefs at Edessa. Brill Archive. p. 1. ISBN 978-90-04-06050-0. 
  30. ^ Bird, Isabella, Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan, including a summer in the Upper Karun region and a visit to the Nestorian rayahs, London: J. Murray, 1891, vol. ii, pp. 282 and 306
  31. ^ Rev. Justin Perkins : “A residence of eight years in Persia among the Nestorian Christians”, New York, 1843 – P: 304.
  32. ^ Wilmshurst, David, The ecclesiastical organisation of the Church of the East, 1318-1913, Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 2000, p. 278
  33. ^ Odisho, Edward, 1988
  34. ^ Odisho, Edward: The Sound System of Modern Assyrian (Neo-Aramaic) - Weisbaden, Harrassowitz, 1988
  35. ^ Beth-Zay‘ā, Esha‘yā Shamāshā Dāwīd, Tash‘īthā d-Beth-Nahreyn, Tehran: Assyrian Youth Cultural Society Press, 1963, p. 895
  36. ^ Sabar, Yona (2003). "Aramaic, once a great language, now on the verge of extinction," in When Languages Collide: Perspectives on Language Conflict, Language Competition, and Language Coexistence, Joseph, DeStefano, Jacobs, Lehiste, eds. The Ohio State University Press.
  37. ^ Thackston, Wheeler M. (1999). Introduction to Syriac. Bethesda, MD: Ibex Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-936347-98-8.
  38. ^ Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1.
  39. ^ Compendious Syriac Grammar, by James A. Crichton. London: Williams & Norgate 1904. 2003 edition: ISBN 1-57506-050-7
  40. ^ Hatch, William (1946). An album of dated Syriac manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. p. 24. ISBN 1-931956-53-7.
  41. ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889. p. 5].
  42. ^ Phillips, George (1866). A Syriac Grammar. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, & Co.; London: Bell & Daldy.
  43. ^ Michaelis, Ioannis Davidis (1784). Grammatica Syriaca
  44. ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889].
  45. ^ Brock, Sebastian (2006). An Introduction to Syriac Studies. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-59333-349-8.
  46. ^ Rudder, Joshua. Learn to Write Aramaic: A Step-by-Step Approach to the Historical & Modern Scripts. n.p.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2011. 220 pp. ISBN 978-1461021421 Includes the Estrangela (pp. 59–113), Madnhaya (pp. 191–206), and the Western Serto (pp. 173–190) scripts.
  47. ^ "Aramaic". The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA: William B Eerdmans. 1975. ISBN 0-8028-2402-1. 
  48. ^ *Beyer, Klaus (1986). The Aramaic language: its distribution and subdivisions. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-53573-2.
  49. ^ Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 10–14 ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1.
  50. ^ Robinson, Theodore Henry (1915). Paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926129-6.
  51. ^ Brockelmann, Carl (1895). Lexicon Syriacum. Berlin: Reuther & Reichard; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.
  52. ^ Healey, John F (1980). First studies in Syriac. University of Birmingham/Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 0-7044-0390-0.

References[edit]

External links[edit]