Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

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For the ancient Assyrian dialect of Akkadian, see Akkadian language.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
ܐܬܘܪܝܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Ātûrāyâ, ܣܘܪܝܬ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Sûret, Ashuri, Suryaya, Sooreth
Suret.png
Sûret in written Syriac
(Madnkhaya script)
Pronunciation [surɛt], [surɛθ]
Native to

Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria

Region Northern Iraq, Hakkari Turkey, Urmia Iran
Native speakers
unknown (undated figure of 230,000)[1]
Early forms
Dialects Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (although is considered its own language), Urmian, Iraqi Koine, Tyari, Jilu, Nochiya, Barwari, Baz and Gawar
Language codes
ISO 639-3 aii
Glottolog assy1241[2]

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, or Assyrian, is a Northeastern Neo-Aramaic[3][4] language spoken by an estimated 250,000 people (1994 SIL estimate) throughout a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia, in northwestern Iran, to the Nineveh plains, and the Irbil, Mosul, Kirkuk and Dahuk regions in northern Iraq, together with parts of southeastern Turkey and the Al Hasakah region of northeastern Syria.[5] In recent years, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic has spread throughout the Assyrian diaspora.[6]

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is closely related to Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, both evolving from the same Syriac language, a distinct dialect which evolved in Assyria[7] between the 5th century BC and 1st century AD.[8] There is also some Akkadian vocabulary and influence in the language. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is written from right to left, and it uses the Madnhāyā version of the Syriac alphabet.[9][10]

Speakers of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo are ethnic Assyrians and are descendants of the ancient Assyrian inhabitants of Northern Mesopotamia.[11][12][13][14][15] Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is the largest speaking Neo-Aramaic group (232,000 speakers), which follows Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (206,000 speakers) and Turoyo (112,000 speakers).[16]

Despite the terms Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic indicating a separate religious (or even ethnic) identity, both languages and their native speakers originate from, and are indigenous to, the same Upper Mesopotamian region (which was Assyria between the 25th century BC and 7th century AD).[17] Most speakers are members of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is mutually intelligible with Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (which is, at times, considered an Assyrian dialect). It is partially intelligible with the Jewish Aramaic languages of Lishana Deni and Lishanid Noshan (Israel).[18][19] Its mutual intelligibility with Turoyo is rather limited.[20]

History[edit]

Aramaic was the language of commerce, trade and communication and became the vernacular language of Assyria in classical antiquity.[21][22][23][24] Aramaic writing has been found as far north as Hadrians Wall in Ancient Britain, in the form of inscriptions in Aramaic, made by Assyrian and Aramean soldiers serving in the Roman Legions in northern England during the 2nd century AD.[25]

By the 1st century AD, Akkadian was extinct, although some loaned vocabulary still survives in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic to this day.[26][27] The Neo-Aramaic languages are ultimately descended from Old Aramaic, the lingua franca in the later phase of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, displacing the East Semitic Assyrian dialect of Akkadian. The Neo-Aramaic languages evolved from Middle Aramaic by the 13th century.

The Syriac language in turn, had evolved from Imperial Aramaic, an Akkadian infused dialect introduced as the lingua franca of Assyria and the Neo Assyrian Empire by Tiglath-Pileser III in the 8th century BC. The term Syrian and thus its derivative Syriac, had originally been 9th century BC Indo-Anatolian and Greek corruptions of Assyria, and specifically meant only Assyria until the 3rd century BC, after which the Seleucid Greeks also applied the term to The Levant and its largely Aramean and Phoenician inhabitants.[28]

Syriac began as an unwritten spoken dialect of Imperial Aramaic in Assyria-northern Mesopotamia, an Akkadian influenced version of the Old Aramaic language which was introduced as the lingua franca of the Neo Assyrian Empire by Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 BC)[29]

The first evidence of such dialects that emerge in Assyria, and begin to influence the written Imperial Aramaic from the 5th century BC. After the conquest of Assyria, southern Mesopotamia and Aramea (Syria) by Alexander the Great, Syriac and other Aramaic dialects gradually lost their status as imperial languages but continued to flourish as lingua francas alongside Ancient Greek. As an official language, Syriac was given a relatively coherent form, style and grammar that is lacking in other Old Eastern Aramaic dialects.[30]

An 11th-century Syriac manuscript.

There is evidence that the adoption of Syriac, the language of the Assyrian people, was to effect mission. Much literary effort was put into the production of an authoritative translation of the Bible into Syriac, the Peshitta (ܦܫܝܛܬܐ Pšīṭtā). At the same time, Ephrem the Syrian was producing the most treasured collection of poetry and theology in the Syriac language. By the 3rd century AD, churches in Edessa began to use Syriac as the language of worship and the language became the literary and liturgical language of many churches in the Fertile Crescent. Syriac was the lingua franca of the Middle East until 900 A.D, when it was superseded by Arabic.

The differences with the Assyrian Church of the East led to the bitter Nestorian schism in the Syriac-speaking world. As a result, Syriac developed distinctive western and eastern varieties. Although remaining a single language with a high level of comprehension between the varieties, the two employ distinctive variations in pronunciation and writing system, and, to a lesser degree, in vocabulary.

The Mongol invasions of the 13th century, and the religiously motivated massacres of Assyrian Christians by Tamurlane further contributed to the rapid decline of the language. In many places outside of northern Mesopotamia (the Assyrian homeland), even in liturgy, it was replaced by Arabic.

Russian linguists studied Assyrian Neo-Aramaic as spoken by immigrant speakers in Georgia and Armenia at the end of the 19th century. They called the language Айсорский, Aysorskiy, from Armenian: ասորի asori. However, by the 1930s, the official name of the language in Russian had become Ассирийский, Assiriyskiy, or Assyrian.[31]

Instability throughout the Middle East over the past century has led to a worldwide diaspora of Assyrian Aramaic-speakers, with many of speakers now living abroad, such as in, North America, Australia or in Europe. Despite this, the Assyrian homeland still has sizable Assyrian Aramaic-speaking communities, particularly Mosul, Irbil, Kirkuk, Dohuk and Hasakah.

Dialects[edit]

The distribution of the Syriac language in the Middle East and Asia
Post 2010, in Iraq, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is mainly spoken in the Nineveh plains and the cities around Mosul, Duhok, Irbil and Kurkuk (magenta).

SIL Ethnologue distinguishes five dialect groups: Urmian, Northern, Central, Western, and Sapna, each with sub-dialects.

Standard literary Assyrian is based on the Urmian dialect and is known as "General Urmian" (since the 1830s), with a second standard dialect derived from General Urmian eveloping in the 20th century, known as "Iraqi Koine".[32]

The Urmia dialect has become the prestige dialect of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic after 1836, when that dialect was chosen by Justin Perkins, an American Presbyterian missionary, for the creation of a standard literary dialect of Assyrian.

In 1852, Perkins' translation of the Bible into General Urmian was published by the American Bible Society with a parallel text of the classical Syriac Peshitta. Mutual intelligibility between the Assyrian dialects is as high as 80%–90%.[33][34]

Grouping[edit]

  • Hakkari group (western):
    • Tyari (i.e. Ashitha) - Dialects within this group, and especially the Western group, have more in common with Chaldean Neo-Aramaic than with Standard Assyrian.
    • Tkhuma
    • Tal
    • Lewin

Iraqi Koine[edit]

During the First World War, many Assyrians living in Ottoman Turkey were forced from their homes, and many of their descendants now live in Iraq. The relocation has led to a separate dialect usually called Iraqi Koine. It is a mixture of the Ashiret dialects (of the above) with General Urmian. Iraqi Koine does not really constitute a new dialect, but an incomplete merger of dialects. Iraqi Koine was developed in the urban areas of Iraq (i.e. Baghdad, Basra, Habbaniya and Kirkuk), which became the meccas for the rural Assyrian population.[35]

This dialect is a compromise between the thicker rural accents of the mountains (i.e. Tyari) and the prestigious dialect of Urmia. Though Koine is more similar to Urmian in terms of manner of articulation, place of articulation and with its consonant cluster formations. By the end of the 1950s, a good number of Assyrians started to speak Iraqi Koine. Today, Iraqi Koine is the predominant use of communication between the majority of the Assyrians.[36]

To note, the emergence of the Koine didn't mean that the rest of the spoken dialects vanished. The Ashiret dialects were still active because some Assyrians remained in the rural areas and the fact that the first generation speakers who relocated in urban areas still maintained their native dialects. Elements of original Ashiret dialects can still be observed in Iraqi Koine, especially in that of older speakers.

Script[edit]

Main article: Syriac alphabet
"Amen" in contemporary Syriac script (Madnhāyā).

The Syriac script is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD.[37] It is one of the Semitic abjads directly descending from the Aramaic alphabet and shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic, and the traditional Mongolian alphabets. The alphabet consists of 22 letters, all of which are consonants. It is a cursive script where some, but not all, letters connect within a word.

The sixth beatitude (Matthew 5:8) from an East Syriac Peshitta.
ܛܘܼܒܲܝܗܘܿܢ ܠܐܲܝܠܹܝܢ ܕܲܕ݂ܟܹܝܢ ܒܠܸܒ̇ܗܘܿܢ܄ ܕܗܸܢ݂ܘܿܢ ܢܸܚܙܘܿܢ ܠܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ܂
Ṭūḇayhōn l-ʾaylên da-ḏḵên b-lebbhōn: d-hennōn neḥzōn l-ʾalāhā.
'Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.'

When Arabic began to be the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent, texts were often written in Arabic with the Syriac script. Malayalam was also written with Syriac script and was called Suriyani Malayalam.

In the 1930s, following the state policy for minority languages of the Soviet Union, a Latin alphabet for Assyrian was developed and some material published. However, this innovation did not displace the Syriac script.[38]

The oldest and classical form of the alphabet is ʾEsṭrangēlā (ܐܣܛܪܢܓܠܐ; the name is thought to derive from the Greek adjective στρογγύλη (strongylē, 'rounded'),[39][40]) Although ʾEsṭrangēlā is no longer used as the main script for writing Syriac, it has received some revival since the 10th century.

ܐ    ܒ    ܓ    ܕ    ܗ    ܘ
ܙ    ܚ    ܛ    ܝ    ܟܟ    ܠ
ܡܡ    ܢܢ    ܣ    ܥ    ܦ
ܨ    ܩ    ܪ    ܫ    ܬ

The Madnhāyā version formed as a form of shorthand developed from the Syriac alphabet and progressed further as handwriting patterns changed. The Madnhāyā version also possesses vowel markings to help foreigners learn and read Syriac. Other names for the script include Swāḏāyā, "conversational", often translated as "contemporary", reflecting its use in writing modern Neo-Aramaic.[41][42]

Three letters act as matres lectionis: rather than being a consonant, they indicate a vowel. ʾĀlap̄ (ܐ), the first letter, represents a glottal stop, but it can also indicate a vowel at the beginning or the end of a word. The letter Waw (ܘ) is the consonant w, but can also represent the vowels o and u. Likewise, the letter Yōḏ (ܝ) represents the consonant y, but it also stands for the vowels i and e. In addition to foreign sounds, a marking system is used to distinguish qūššāyā, 'hard' letters) from rūkkāḵā, 'soft' letters). The letters Bēṯ, Gāmal, Dālaṯ, Kāp̄, , and Taw, all plosives ('hard'), are able to be spirantized into fricatives ('soft').[43]

The system involves placing a single dot underneath the letter to give its 'soft' variant and a dot above the letter to give its 'hard' variant (though, in modern usage, no mark at all is usually used to indicate the 'hard' value).[44][45]

Phonology[edit]

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic has 22 consonants and 3 vowels. The consonantal phonemes are:

transliteration a b g d h w z y k l m n s ʿ p q r š t
letter ܐ ܒ ܓ ܕ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܝ ܟ ܠ ܡ ܢ ܣ ܥ ܦ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ
pronunciation [ʔ], [a] [b] [ɡ], [dʒ] [d], [ð] [h] [w], [v] [z] [x] [tˤ] [j] [k], [x] [l] [m] [n] [s] [eɪ̯], [ʕ] [p], [f] [sˤ] [q] [r] [ʃ] [t], [θ]

Consonants[edit]

Table of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic consonant phonemes
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
plain emphatic
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k ɡ q ʔ
Fricative sibilant s z ʃ
non-sibilant f θ ð x (ɣ) (ʕ) h
Approximant w l j
Trill r
  • The pharyngeal /ʕ/, as heard in ayin (ܥ), is a marginal phoneme that is generally upheld in education or religious speech (such as by Assyrian priests in church mass) and in hymns. Among the majority of Assyrian speakers, ayin (occurring in words) would be realized as diphthongs /aɪ̯/ or /eɪ̯/, and even /ɛ/, depending on the dialect. However, the letter itself is still usually uttered with /ʕ/.[46]
  • Unlike the other Semitic languages (including Chaldean Neo-Aramaic), the pharyngeal [ħ] is nonexistent.
  • /f/ is a phoneme only in the Tyari dialects. In most of the other Assyrian varieties it merges with /p/.[47]
  • /θ/ and /ð/ are strictly used in the Tyari and Barwari dialects, which respectively merge with /t/ and /d/ in standard Assyrian (Iraqi Koine/Urmian) and other Ashiret dialects.
  • In the Urmian dialect /w/ has a widespread allophone [ʋ] (it may vacillate to [v] for some speakers).[48]
  • In some Urmian and Jilu speakers, /q/ may merge with /k/ into [k].
  • In the Urmian and some Tyari dialects, /ɡ/ merges with /dʒ/ into [].
  • /k/ may be merge with /tʃ/ into [] in Urmian and Nochiya speakers.
  • /ɣ/ is a marginal phoneme that occurs in some words, albeit only for some speakers. For others, it is realized the same as /x/.
  • In some Tyari dialects (such as Ashita), /r/ may be realized as [ɹ]. This is a feature also present in Chaldean Neo-Aramaic.[49]

Vowels[edit]

Vowel phonemes of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (Standard Urmian/Iraqi Koine) are as follows:[50]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ɛ ə o
Open a ɑ
  • /ɛ/ can be realized as either open-mid [ɛ] or close-mid [e]. The Urmian dialect would generally diphthongize /ɛ/ to [eɪ̯].
  • /i/ may be realized as [ɛ] in the Tyari, Barwari and Baz dialects.
  • /ə/ (a schwa) is mostly realized as [ɪ] in the Tyari and Barwari dialects.
  • /u/ may be realized as [ɔ] in the Tyari, Baz and Barwari dialects. The Urmian dialect may diphthongize /u/ to [ui].
  • /o/ may be diphthongized to [aw] in the Tyari dialects.
  • /a/, which is normally central [ä], is usually front [a] in the Urmian and Nochiya dialects. For some Urmian speakers, [æ] may be used instead. In some Jilu speakers, this vowel is mostly fronted and raised to [ɛ]. In the Tyari and Barwari dialects, it is usually more back [ɑ].[51]
  • /ɑ/ may also be realised as [ɒ], depending on the speaker. It is more rounded and higher in the Urmian dialect, where it is realized as [ɔ].[52]

Two basic diphthongs exist, namely /eɪ̯/ and /aw/. For some words, many dialects have converted them to e and o respectively.

Phonetics of Iraqi Koine[edit]

  • Iraqi Koine, like the majority of the Assyrian dialects, realizes /w/ as [w] instead of [ʋ].
  • Iraqi Koine generally realizes the fricatives /θ, ð/ in words like "mata" (village in English) and "r'qada" (dancing) as stops [t, d].
  • Predominantly, /q/ in words like "qalama" (pen) doesn't merge with /k/.
  • The diphthongs /ai/ and /au/ in words like "qayta" (summer) and "tawra" (cow) are realized as long [] and [], respectively.[53]
  • The /eɪ/ diphthong in "beyta" ('house') realized as [ɛː].
  • The /ui/ diphthong in zuyzeh (money) is realised as [u].[24]
  • // in verbs like "chi'akhla" (she eats) is realized as [y].

Grammar[edit]

Most Assyrian Neo-Aramaic nouns are built from triliteral roots. Nouns carry grammatical gender (masculine or feminine), they can be either singular or plural in number (a very few can be dual) and can exist in one of three grammatical states (this is somewhat akin to case in Indo-European languages). These states should not be confused with grammatical cases in other languages. Adjectives always agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. Adjectives are in the absolute state if they are predicative, but agree with the state of their noun if attributive.

Most Syriac verbs are built on triliteral roots as well. Finite verbs carry person, grammatical gender (except in the first person) and number, as well as tense and conjugation. The non-finite verb forms are the infinitive and the active and passive participles. The emphatic state became the ordinary form of the noun, and the absolute and construct states were relegated to certain stock phrases (for example, ܒܪ ܐܢܫܐ/ܒܪܢܫܐ, bar nāšā, "man, person", literally "son of man").

The present tense is usually marked with the participle followed by the subject pronoun. However, such pronouns are usually omitted in the case of the third person. This use of the participle to mark the present tense is the most common of a number of compound tenses that can be used to express varying senses of tense and aspect.[54]

Sample phrases[edit]

English Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
Hello (plural) Shlamalokhon
Love Khooba
Kiss N'shaqta
Thank you Baseema (male)/Basimta (female)
Children Yaleh-sooreh
Students Talmeedeh
Father Baba
Mother Yemmah
God Alaha
Uncle Khaloowah (Maternal)/Mamoonah (Paternal)
Aunt Khalta (Maternal) / 'Amtah (Paternal)
Man/Human Nasha/Bar Nasha
Woman Bakhta
(little) Boy Bruna
Girl/Daughter Brata/Bratha
Book Ktava/Ktawa
Pen Qalama
Go Khoosh/Si
Birth Yalda or Breta
Come Ta/Hayo/Sha
Rain M'ṭrah
Sun Shimsha
Moon Sahra
Fish Noona/Nuyna
Star Kekhwa
Elder (male) Sawa/Sava
Elder (female) Sota/Sawta
Hand Eeda
Song Zmarta/Zmartha
Marriage Zuwagha/Gwarta
Tomorrow Qudmeh
Today D'Yawma/Idyoom
Death Mota/Mawta
Money (plural) Zoozeh
Heart Leba
Breath Na'pas
Head Reesha/Reysha
Dream Khulma
Village Matah/Mathah
Flying Prakha
Mirror Nora/Nawra
River Nahra
Ocean Yahma
Teacher Rabi (male)/Rabeeta (female)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Assyrian Neo-Aramaic at Ethnologue (14th ed., 2000)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Assyrian Neo-Aramaic". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Northeastern Neo-Aramaic". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  4. ^ Blench, 2006. The Afro-Asiatic Languages: Classification and Reference List
  5. ^ Maclean, Arthur John (1895). Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Syriac: as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, north-west Persia, and the Plain of Mosul: with notices of the vernacular of the Jews of Azerbaijan and of Zakhu near Mosul. Cambridge University Press, London.
  6. ^ Beyer, Klaus; John F. Healey (trans.) (1986). The Aramaic Language: its distribution and subdivisions. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. p. 44. ISBN 3-525-53573-2.
  7. ^ Khan 2008, pp. 6
  8. ^ Tekoglu, R. & Lemaire, A. (2000). La bilingue royale louvito-phénicienne de Çineköy. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des inscriptions, et belleslettres, année 2000, 960-1006.
  9. ^ The Nestorians and their Rituals; George Percy Badger.
  10. ^ A Short History of Syriac Christianity; W. Stewart McCullough.
  11. ^ The Fihrist (Catalog): A Tench Century Survey of Islamic Culture. Abu 'l Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq al Nadim. Great Books of the Islamic World, Kazi Publications. Translator: Bayard Dodge.
  12. ^ Herodotus, The Histories, VII.63, s:History of Herodotus/Book 7
  13. ^ From a lecture by J. A. Brinkman: "There is no reason to believe that there would be no racial or cultural continuity in Assyria, since there is no evidence that the population of Assyria was removed." Quoted in Efram Yildiz's "The Assyrians" Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies, 13.1, pp. 22, ref 24
  14. ^ Especially in view of the very early establishment of Christianity in Assyria and its continuity to the present and the continuity of the population, I think there is every likelihood that ancient Assyrians are among the ancestors of modern Assyrians of the area." Biggs, pp. 10
  15. ^ Assyrians After Assyria, Parpola
  16. ^ *MacDonald, Kevin (2004-07-29). "Socialization for Ingroup Identity among Assyrians in the United States". Paper presented at a symposium on socialization for ingroup identity at the meetings of the International Society for Human Ethology, Ghent, Belgium. Based on interviews with community informants, this paper explores socialization for ingroup identity and endogamy among Assyrians in the United States. The Assyrians descent from the population of ancient Assyria (founded in the 24th century BC), and have lived as a linguistic, political, religious, and ethnic minority in Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey since the fall of the Assyrian Empire in 608 BC. Practices that maintain ethnic and cultural continuity in the Near East, the United States and elsewhere include language and residential patterns, ethnically based Christian churches characterized by unique holidays and rites, and culturally specific practices related to life-cycle events and food preparation. The interviews probe parental attitudes and practices related to ethnic identity and encouragement of endogamy. Results are being analyzed. 
  17. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Northeastern Neo-Aramaic". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  18. ^ Avenery, Iddo, The Aramaic Dialect of the Jews of Zakho. The Israel academy of Science and Humanities 1988.
  19. ^ Heinrichs, Wolfhart (ed.) (1990). Studies in Neo-Aramaic. Scholars Press: Atlanta, Georgia. ISBN 1-55540-430-8.
  20. ^ Tezel, Aziz (2003). Comparative Etymological Studies in the Western Neo-Syriac (Ṭūrōyo) Lexicon: with special reference to homonyms, related words and borrowings with cultural signification. Uppsala Universitet. ISBN 91-554-5555-7.
  21. ^ "Microsoft Word - PeshittaNewTestament.doc" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-16. [dead link]
  22. ^ Bae, C. Aramaic as a Lingua Franca During the Persian Empire (538-333 BCE). Journal of Universal Language. March 2004, 1-20.
  23. ^ Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B. C. by G. R. Driver
  24. ^ a b The British Survey, By British Society for International Understanding, 1968, page 3
  25. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/culture/charlottehigginsblog/2009/oct/13/hadrians-wall
  26. ^ Akkadian Words in Modern Assyrian
  27. ^ Kaufman, Stephen A. (1974),The Akkadian influences on Aramaic. University of Chicago Press
  28. ^ Rollinger, Robert (2006). "The terms "Assyria" and "Syria" again" (PDF). Journal of Near Eastern Studies 65 (4): 284–287. doi:10.1086/511103.
  29. ^ Sabar, Yona (1975). "The impact of Israeli Hebrew on the Neo-Aramaic dialect of the Kurdish Jews of Zakho: a case of language shift". Hebrew Union College Annual (46): 489–508. 
  30. ^ Drijvers, H. J. W. (1980). Cults and beliefs at Edessa. Brill Archive. p. 1. ISBN 978-90-04-06050-0. 
  31. ^ Bird, Isabella, Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan, including a summer in the Upper Karun region and a visit to the Nestorian rayahs, London: J. Murray, 1891, vol. ii, pp. 282 and 306
  32. ^ Rev. Justin Perkins : “A residence of eight years in Persia among the Nestorian Christians”, New York, 1843 – P: 304.
  33. ^ Wilmshurst, David, The ecclesiastical organisation of the Church of the East, 1318-1913, Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 2000, p. 278
  34. ^ Odisho, Edward, 1988
  35. ^ Odisho, Edward: The Sound System of Modern Assyrian (Neo-Aramaic) - Weisbaden, Harrassowitz, 1988
  36. ^ Beth-Zay‘ā, Esha‘yā Shamāshā Dāwīd, Tash‘īthā d-Beth-Nahreyn, Tehran: Assyrian Youth Cultural Society Press, 1963, p. 895
  37. ^ "Syriac alphabet". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved June 16, 2012. 
  38. ^ Thackston, Wheeler M. (1999). Introduction to Syriac. Bethesda, MD: Ibex Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-936347-98-8.
  39. ^ Hatch, William (1946). An album of dated Syriac manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. p. 24. ISBN 1-931956-53-7.
  40. ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889. p. 5].
  41. ^ Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1.
  42. ^ Compendious Syriac Grammar, by James A. Crichton. London: Williams & Norgate 1904. 2003 edition: ISBN 1-57506-050-7
  43. ^ Phillips, George (1866). A Syriac Grammar. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, & Co.; London: Bell & Daldy.
  44. ^ Michaelis, Ioannis Davidis (1784). Grammatica Syriaca
  45. ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889].
  46. ^ Brock, Sebastian (2006). An Introduction to Syriac Studies. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-59333-349-8.
  47. ^ Rudder, Joshua. Learn to Write Aramaic: A Step-by-Step Approach to the Historical & Modern Scripts. n.p.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2011. 220 pp. ISBN 978-1461021421 Includes the Estrangela (pp. 59–113), Madnhaya (pp. 191–206), and the Western Serto (pp. 173–190) scripts.
  48. ^ "Aramaic". The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA: William B Eerdmans. 1975. ISBN 0-8028-2402-1. 
  49. ^ *Beyer, Klaus (1986). The Aramaic language: its distribution and subdivisions. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-53573-2.
  50. ^ Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 10–14 ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1.
  51. ^ Robinson, Theodore Henry (1915). Paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926129-6.
  52. ^ Brockelmann, Carl (1895). Lexicon Syriacum. Berlin: Reuther & Reichard; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.
  53. ^ Sabar, Yona (2003). "Aramaic, once a great language, now on the verge of extinction," in When Languages Collide: Perspectives on Language Conflict, Language Competition, and Language Coexistence, Joseph, DeStefano, Jacobs, Lehiste, eds. The Ohio State University Press.
  54. ^ Healey, John F (1980). First studies in Syriac. University of Birmingham/Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 0-7044-0390-0.

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