Astra 1A

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Astra 1A
Mission type Communication
Operator SES S.A.
SES Astra
SATCAT № 19688
Mission duration 12 years (planned)
16 years (achieved)
Spacecraft properties
Bus GE-4000
Manufacturer GE Astro Electronics
Launch mass 1,780 kilograms (3,920 lb)
Power 1,675 watts
Start of mission
Launch date December 11, 1988 (1988-12-11)
Rocket Ariane 4 V27
Launch site Kourou ELA-2
Contractor Arianespace
End of mission
Disposal Decommissioned
Deactivated December 2004 (2005-01)
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Geosynchronous-belt graveyard orbit
Longitude 19.2° East (1989–2001)
19.4° East (2001)
5.2° East (2001–2004)
Slot Astra 1 (1981-2001)
Perigee 36,279 kilometres (22,543 mi)[1]
Apogee 36,408 kilometres (22,623 mi)[1]
Inclination 11.55 degrees[1]
Period 1464.35 minutes[1]
Epoch 4 September 2014, 23:18:44 UTC[1]
Transponders
Band 16 Ku band
Bandwidth 26 megahertz
TWTA power 45 watts
EIRP 50 decibel-watts

Astra 1A was the first satellite launched and operated by SES (Société Européenne des Satellites), launched in December 1988. During its early days, it was often referred to as the Astra Satellite, as SES only operated one satellite originally.[not verified in body]

The satellite provided television coverage to Western Europe from 1989 through 2004 and was revolutionary as one of the first medium-powered satellites, allowing reception with smaller dishes than before.[not verified in body]

Astra 1A was retired and became derelict in December 2004.

Channels[edit]

Among the channels carried in the early years after launch were the entire four channel Sky Television (later British Sky Broadcasting.[citation needed] After the merger with rival British Satellite Broadcasting on the Marcopolo satellite), the services consisted of Sky One/Sky Channel, Sky News, Sky Movies and Eurosport, the Scandinavian TV3 and TV1000, the German Pro7, Sat.1, RTL plus, 3sat and Teleclub, the Dutch RTL4 as well as FilmNet, Screensport, MTV Europe, The Children's Channel and Lifestyle.[2]

Astra 1A began television broadcasts on February 5, 1989. Until 1998 all of SES' satellites were co-located with 1A at 19.2° east, leading that position to be known mostly as Astra 1 (later, Astra 19.2°E), although Astra 2C also used to operate there, before it moved to 28.2° east in autumn 2007.[citation needed]

History[edit]

The satellite came into its position on January 7, 1989. FilmNet became the first channel on the satellite when it launched on transponder 11 on February 1. Other channels such as Sky Channel, Eurosport, Sky News and Sky Movies from Sky Television, as well as the Scandinavian TV3 and MTV Europe all launched in February. The Children's Channel/Lifestyle and Screensport followed in March. The Scandinavian pay channel TV1000 launched in August 1989.

Sky Television had originally planned to launch The Disney Channel and Sky Arts on the Astra satellite in 1989,[3] but these plans failed to materialize. The transponders intended for these channels, were used for Eurosport and the Dutch RTL Veronique (which would later become RTL4), respectively. The first German language programmes, RTL plus, Sat.1 and Pro 7 all launched on December 8. With the launch of 3sat in March 1990 and Teleclub in June all transponders were occupied.

Lifestyle was replaced by VOX in January 1993. Soon thereafter, Screensport merged with Eurosport and its transponder was replaced by RTL2. RTL 4 moved to Astra 1D in 1995 and was replaced by Super RTL. Teleclub was replaced by Kabel 1 during the same year. TV3 and TV1000 left Astra in 1996 and their transponders were taken over by BSkyB who used them for Fox Kids/Sky Two and Granada Plus/Granada Men & Motors. Filmnet also left in 1996, to be replaced by Bloomberg Germany in 1997.

BSkyB ended their analogue service in 2001, which meant that its services closed down. By the end of 2001, the satellite was moved from 19.2 degrees east to serve few years at 5,2 degrees east.

On 19.2 degrees east, the satellite was replaced by Astra 1F. Many channels, including RTL II, RTL, Eurosport, VOX, Sat.1, Kabel Eins, Super RTL and ProSieben were still broadcasting in analogue on the same frequencies in 2009.[4]

In December 2004 Astra 1A was moved into a "Graveyard orbit" after some time at 5.2°E providing data services.

Transponders[edit]

Transponder Frequency Channels carried
1 11,214 H Screensport (1989–1993), RTL2 (1993-)
2 11,229 V RTL (1989-), RTL Plus
3 11,244 H TV3 Sweden (1989–1996), Granada Plus/Granada Men & Motors (1996–2001) RTL Shop (2001)
4 11,259 V Eurosport (1989-)
5 11,273 H Lifestyle/The Children's Channel (1989–1993), JSTV (1990–1991), VOX (1993-), Sell-A-Vision
6 11,288 V Sat.1 (1989-)
7 11,303 H TV1000 (1989–1996), Sky2 (1996–1997) Fox Kids (1996–2001), National Geographic Channel (1997–2001) Viva Zwei (2001)
8 11,318 V Sky One (1989–2001)
9 11,332 H Eurosport (1989), Teleclub (1990–1995) Kabel 1 (1995-)
10 11,347 V 3sat
11 11,362 H FilmNet (1989–1996), Bloomberg (1997-)
12 11,377 V Sky News (1989–2001)
13 11,391 H RTL 4 (1990–1995), Super RTL (1995-)
14 11,406 V Pro Sieben (1989-)
15 11,421 H MTV Europe (1989-)
16 11,436 V Sky Movies (1989–2001)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "ASTRA 1A Satellite details 1988-109B NORAD 19688". N2YO. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  2. ^ "Astra satellite channels". 1990-09-18. Web link.
  3. ^ Leaflet from Astra sent out to German reatilers in May 1989[dead link]
  4. ^ "Lyngsat Astra 1F". Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 

External links[edit]