In Greek mythology, Astraea or Astrea (Ancient Greek: Ἀστραῖα; English translation: "star-maiden") was a daughter of Zeus and Themis or of Eos and Astraeus. She and her mother were both personifications of justice, though Astraea was also associated with innocence and purity. She is always associated with the Greek goddess of justice, Dike (confused with Asteria, the goddess of the stars and the daughter of Coeus and Phoebe).
Astraea, the celestial virgin, was the last of the immortals to live with humans during the Golden Age, one of the old Greek religion's five deteriorating Ages of Man. According to Ovid, Astraea abandoned the earth during the Iron Age. Fleeing from the new wickedness of humanity, she ascended to heaven to become the constellation Virgo the nearby constellation Libra, reflected in her symbolic association with Justitia in Latin culture. In the Tarot, the 8th card, Justice, with a figure of Justitia, can thus be considered related to the figure of Astraea on historical iconographic grounds.
According to legend, Astraea will one day come back to Earth, bringing with her the return of the utopian Golden Age of which she was the ambassador.
In culture and literature
During the European Renaissance, Astraea became associated with the general spirit of renewal of culture occurring at that time, particularly in England, where she became poetically identified in literature with the figure of Queen Elizabeth I as the virgin Queen reigning over a new Golden Age. In Spain she was often identified with the rule of Philip IV. The French Author Honore D'Urfe wrote a very popular serial novel called L'Astree (Astraea), the first and second parts being published in 1607 and 1610 and each installment very much anticipated by the aristocratic public at the time. Rousseau in his Confessions p. 160 Penguin Classic notes it as one of the novels read with his father and says it "was the one that recurred most frequently to my mind". A spectacle play by the Count of Villamediana and thirteen dramas by Calderon de la Barca introduce a character named Astraea to the foreground of political and astrological concerns. In Russia, Astraea was identified first with Elizabeth, then with Catherine the Great.
The English epic poet Edmund Spenser further embellished this myth at the opening of Book V of The Faerie Queene (1596), where he claims that Astraea left behind "her groome | An yron man", called Talus. Shakespeare refers to Astraea in Titus Andronicus, and also in Henry VI, part 1. In his most famous play, La vida es sueño, Calderon de la Barca has a character named Rosaura (an anagram for "dawns") take on the name of Astraea at Court. This may be a laudatory political allusion to the dawn of a new Golden Age under Philip IV/Segismundo.
John Dryden's poem Astraea Redux is titled so as to compare the return of Charles II to England at the end of Interregnum to the return of Astraea.
Astraea is also referenced in John Milton's epic poem Paradise Lost, in Book IV between lines 990 and 1000. When Satan is discovered in the Garden of Eden and brought before the Angel Gabriel, the two are on the verge of war.
[God (The Eternal)] Hung forth in Heav'n his golden Scales, yet seen
Betwixt ASTREA and the SCORPION signe,Battels and Realms
Wherein all things created first he weighd,
The pendulous round Earth with ballanc't Aire
In counterpoise, now ponders all events,
The British writer Aphra Behn used "Astrea" as one of her code-names while working as a spy for King Charles II. She subsequently used the name "Astrea" to identify the speaker in many of her poems, and was herself referred to as "The Incomparable Astrea".
In Book 2 of Robert Browning's The Ring and the Book there is the following reference:
There’s an end to all hope of justice more. Astraea's gone indeed, let hope go too! Who is it dares impugn the natural law? Deny God’s word "the faithless wife shall die?"
In the manga/anime series Sora no Otoshimono, Astraea is the name of an angeloid. In the Japanese anime series Mobile Suit Gundam 00 one of the Gundam mobile suits is called Astraea. Astraea is operated by Celestial Being, a paramilitary organisation that fights for peace and a "justice" of sorts. Another anime series, Strawberry Panic, takes place atop "Astraea Hill", which may be a representational title for purity due to the religious undertones found in the anime.
Astraea is mentioned as a cursed Demon Soul in the 2009 video game Demon's Souls. She is the final boss of stage 5-3, protected by Garl Vinland. She has been cursed, in her purity, of discovering that God never existed, despite her devotion. She is lamented for being the purest of all souls, and yet at the same time, the most corrupt.
Astraea is one of the spaceships in the 1997 video game Einhander, made by developer Square Soft. It was made for the PlayStation 1, produced by Sony.
British hardcore band Rolo Tomassi's third album is titled Astraea.
- Astraea - Zeno.org (German)
- Aratus, Phaenomena 97–128.
- Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.149–50, trans. in Ovid (AD 8 (trans 1916)). The Metamorphosis. Frank Justus Miller (trans). New York: Barnes & Noble Classics. p. 6 Book I. ISBN 978-1-59308-276-5.
- cf. Frances Yates, Astraea : The Imperial Theme in the Sixteenth Century.
- cf. Frederick A. de Armas, The Return of Astraea: An Astral-Imperial Myth in Calderon.
- Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1847). Poems. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Astraea". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
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