Astral projection

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the paranormal concept. For the psychedelic trance musical band, see Astral Projection (band). For physical travel to other stars, see Interstellar travel.
"The Separation of the Spirit Body" from The Secret of the Golden Flower, a Chinese handbook on alchemy and meditation

Astral projection (or astral travel) is an interpretation of out-of-body experience (OBE) that assumes the existence of an "astral body" separate from the physical body and capable of travelling outside it.[1] Astral projection or travel denotes the astral body leaving the physical body to travel in an astral plane. The idea of astral travel is rooted in common worldwide religious accounts of the afterlife[2] in which the consciousness' or soul's journey or "ascent" is described in such terms as "an... out-of body experience, wherein the spiritual traveller leaves the physical body and travels in his/her subtle body (or dreambody or astral body) into ‘higher’ realms."[3] It is frequently reported in association with dreams, drug experiences and forms of meditation.[4][5]

Patients have reported feelings similar to the descriptions of astral projection induced through various hallucinogenic and hypnotic (including self-hypnotic) means. There is no scientific evidence that there is any measurable manifestation of a consciousness or soul which is separate from neural activity, and there is no scientific evidence for the contention that one can consciously leave the body and make observations. Attempts to verify that such has occurred have consistently failed in spite of the variety of pseudoscientific claims to the contrary.[6][7]

Western beliefs[edit]

According to classical, medieval and renaissance Hermeticism, Neoplatonism, and later Theosophist and Rosicrucian thought, the astral body is an intermediate body of light linking the rational soul to the physical body while the astral plane is an intermediate world of light between Heaven and Earth, composed of the spheres of the planets and stars. These astral spheres were held to be populated by angels, demons and spirits.[8][9]

The subtle bodies, and their associated planes of existence, form an essential part of the esoteric systems that deal with astral phenomena. In the neo-platonism of Plotinus, for example, the individual is a microcosm ("small world") of the universe (the macrocosm or "great world"). "The rational soul...is akin to the great Soul of the World" while "the material universe, like the body, is made as a faded image of the Intelligible". Each succeeding plane of manifestation is causal to the next, a world-view called emanationism; "from the One proceeds Intellect, from Intellect Soul, and from Soul - in its lower phase, or that of Nature - the material universe".[10]

Often these bodies and their planes of existence are depicted as a series of concentric circles or nested spheres, with a separate body traversing each realm.[11] The idea of the astral figured prominently in the work of the nineteenth-century French occultist Eliphas Levi, whence it was adopted and developed further by Theosophy, and used afterwards by other esoteric movements.

Bible[edit]

Some have claimed that the Bible contains mentions of astral projection.

Carrington, Muldoon, Peterson, and Williams claim that the subtle body is attached to the physical body by means of a psychic silver cord.[12][13] The final chapter of the Biblical Book of Ecclesiastes is often cited in this respect: "Before the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be shattered at the fountain, or the wheel be broken at the cistern."[14] Scherman, however, contends that the context points to this being merely a metaphor, comparing the body to a machine, with the silver cord referring to the spine.[15]

Paul's Second Epistle to the Corinthians is more generally agreed to refer to the astral planes;[16] "I know a man in Christ, fourteen years ago, (whether in the body I know not, or out of the body I know not, God knows) such a one caught up to the third heaven..."[17] This statement gave rise to the Visio Pauli, a tract that offers a vision of heaven and hell, a forerunner of visions attributed to Adomnan and Tnugdalus as well as of Dante's Divine Comedy.

Islamic Mysticism[edit]

Many sects and offshoots belonging to Islamic mysticism interpret Muhammad's night ascent—the Isra and Mi'raj—to be an out of body experience through nonphysical environments,[18][19] unlike the Sunni and Shia Muslims. In view of the references from the Qur'an and Hadith, the Sunni and Shia Muslims reject this saying the Isra and Mi'raj, the night journey – mentioned in the Qur'an and Hadith was physical yet spiritual. He was taken to the Masjid Al Aqsa, where he performed prayer leading all previous prophets and then taken to the heavens in a journey. The mystics claim Muhammad was transported to Jerusalem and onward to seven heavens, even though "the apostle's body remained where it was."[20]

Ancient Egypt[edit]

Similar concepts of soul travel appear in various other religious traditions, for example ancient Egyptian teachings present the soul as having the ability to hover outside the physical body in the ka, or subtle body.[21]

China[edit]

Taoist alchemical practice involves creation of an energy body by breathing meditations, drawing energy into a 'pearl' that is then "circulated".[22] "Xiangzi ... with a drum as his pillow fell fast asleep, snoring and motionless. His primordial spirit, however, went straight into the banquet room and said, "My lords, here I am again." ... When Tuizhi walked ... with the officials to take a look, there really was a Daoist sleeping on the ground and snoring like thunder. Yet inside, in the side room, there was another Daoist beating a fisher drum and singing Daoist songs. The officials all said, “Although there are two different people, their faces and clothes are exactly alike. Clearly he is a divine immortal who can divide his body and appear in several places at once. ..." ... At that moment, the Daoist in the side room came walking out, and the Daoist sleeping on the ground woke up. The two merged into one."[23]

India[edit]

Similar ideas such as the Lin'ga S'ari-ra are found in ancient Hindu scriptures such as the YogaVashishta-Maharamayana of Valmiki.[21] Modern Indians who have vouched for astral projection include Paramahansa Yogananda who witnessed Swami Pranabananda doing a miracle through a possible astral projection[24] and Osho (Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh) who practiced it himself.[25]

The Indian spiritual teacher Meher Baba described one's use of astral projection:

In the advancing stages leading to the beginning of the path, the aspirant becomes spiritually prepared for being entrusted with free use of the forces of the inner world of the astral bodies. He may then undertake astral journeys in his astral body, leaving the physical body in sleep or wakefulness. The astral journeys that are taken unconsciously are much less important than those undertaken with full consciousness and as a result of deliberate volition. This implies conscious use of the astral body. Conscious separation of the astral body from the outer vehicle of the gross body has its own value in making the soul feel its distinction from the gross body and in arriving at fuller control of the gross body. One can, at will, put on and take off the external gross body as if it were a cloak, and use the astral body for experiencing the inner world of the astral and for undertaking journeys through it, if and when necessary....The ability to undertake astral journeys therefore involves considerable expansion of one’s scope for experience. It brings opportunities for promoting one’s own spiritual advancement, which begins with the involution of consciousness.[26]

The Yogic tradition is an elaborate system of meditation and astral projection and most other Chino-Tibetan systems are derived therefrom through Buddhist channels.[citation needed] Astral projection is one of the Siddhis considered achievable by yoga practitioners through self-disciplined practice.

Japan[edit]

The 'ikiryō' as illustrated by Toriyama Sekien.

In Japanese mythology, an ikiryō (生霊?) (also read shōryō, seirei, or ikisudama) is a manifestation of the soul of a living person separately from their body.[27] Traditionally, if someone holds a sufficient grudge against another person, it is believed that a part or the whole of their soul can temporarily leave their body and appear before the target of their hate in order to curse or otherwise harm them, similar to an evil eye. Souls are also believed to leave a living body when the body is extremely sick or comatose; such ikiryō are not malevolent.[28][29]

Inuit[edit]

In some Inuit groups, people with special capabilities are said to travel to (mythological) remote places, and report their experiences and things important to their fellows or the entire community; how to stop bad luck in hunting, cure a sick person etc.,[30][31] things unavailable to people with normal capabilities.[32]

Amazon[edit]

The yaskomo of the Waiwai is believed to be able to perform a "soul flight" that can serve several functions such as healing, flying to the sky to consult cosmological beings (the moon or the brother of the moon) to get a name for a new-born baby, flying to the cave of peccaries' mountains to ask the father of peccaries for abundance of game or flying deep down in a river to get the help of other beings.[33]

"Astral" and "etheric"[edit]

The expression "astral projection" came to be used in two different ways. For the Golden Dawn[34] and some Theosophists[35] it retained the classical and medieval philosophers' meaning of journeying to other worlds, heavens, hells, the astrological spheres and other imaginal[36] landscapes, but outside these circles the term was increasingly applied to non-physical travel around the physical world.[37]

Though this usage continues to be widespread, the term, "etheric travel", used by some later Theosophists, offers a useful distinction. Some experients say they visit different times and/or places:[38] "etheric", then, is used to represent the sense of being "out of the body" in the physical world, whereas "astral" may connote some alteration in time-perception. Robert Monroe describes the former type of projection as "Locale I" or the "Here-Now", involving people and places that actually exist:[39] Robert Bruce calls it the "Real Time Zone" (RTZ) and describes it as the non-physical dimension-level closest to the physical.[40] This etheric body is usually, though not always, invisible but is often perceived by the experient as connected to the physical body during separation by a “silver cord”. Some link "falling" dreams with projection.[41]

According to Max Heindel, the etheric "double" serves as a medium between the astral and physical realms. In his system the ether, also called prana, is the "vital force" that empowers the physical forms to change. From his descriptions it can be inferred that, to him, when one views the physical during an out-of-body experience, one is not technically "in" the astral realm at all.[42]

Other experients may describe a domain that has no parallel to any known physical setting. Environments may be populated or unpopulated, artificial, natural or abstract, and the experience may be beatific, horrific or neutral. A common Theosophical belief is that one may access a compendium of mystical knowledge called the Akashic records. In many accounts the experiencer correlates the astral world with the world of dreams. Some even report seeing other dreamers enacting dream scenarios unaware of their wider environment.[43]

The astral environment may also be divided into levels or sub-planes by theorists, but there are many different views in various traditions concerning the overall structure of the astral planes: they may include heavens and hells and other after-death spheres, transcendent environments or other less-easily characterized states.[39][41][43]

Notable practitioners[edit]

Emanuel Swedenborg was one of the first practitioners to write extensively about the out-of-body experience, in his Spiritual Diary (1747–65). French philosopher and novelist Honoré de Balzac's fictional work "Louis Lambert" suggests he may have had some astral or out-of-body experience.[44]

There are many twentieth century publications on astral projection,[45] although only a few authors remain widely cited. These include Robert Monroe,[46] Oliver Fox,[47] Sylvan Muldoon and Hereward Carrington,[48] and Yram.[49]

Robert Monroe's accounts of journeys to other realms (1971–1994) popularized the term "OBE" and were translated into a large number of languages. Though his books themselves only placed secondary importance on descriptions of method, Monroe also founded an institute dedicated to research, exploration and non-profit dissemination of auditory technology for assisting others in achieving projection and related altered states of consciousness.

Robert Bruce,[50] William Buhlman,[51] and Albert Taylor[52] have discussed their theories and findings on the syndicated show Coast to Coast AM several times. Michael Crichton gives lengthy and detailed explanations and experience of astral projection in his non-fiction book Travels.

The soul's ability to leave the body at will or while sleeping and visit the various planes of heaven is also known as "soul travel". The practice is taught in Surat Shabd Yoga, where the experience is achieved mostly by meditation techniques and mantra repetition. All Sant Mat Gurus widely spoke about this kind of out of body experience, such as Kirpal Singh.[53]

Eckankar describes Soul Travel broadly as movement of the true, spiritual self (Soul) closer to the heart of God. While the contemplative may perceive the experience as travel, Soul itself is said not to move but to "come into an agreement with fixed states and conditions that already exist in some world of time and space".[54] American Harold Klemp, the current Spiritual Leader of Eckankar[55] practices and teaches Soul Travel, as did his predecessors,[56] through contemplative techniques known as the Spiritual Exercises of ECK (Divine Spirit).[57]

In occult traditions, practices range from inducing trance states to the mental construction of a second body, called the Body of Light in Aleister Crowley's writings, through visualization and controlled breathing, followed by the transfer of consciousness to the secondary body by a mental act of will.[58]

Scientific reception[edit]

There is no scientific evidence that astral projection as an objective phenomenon exists, and pseudoscientific claims to that effect are not accepted as reliable scientific evidence in the relevant fields of study.[6][7]

Robert Todd Carroll writes that the main evidence to support claims of astral travel is anecdotal and comes "in the form of testimonials of those who claim to have experienced being out of their bodies when they may have been out of their minds."[59] Subjects in parapsychological experiments have attempted to project their astral bodies to distant rooms and see what was happening, however such experiments have produced negative results.[60]

According to Bob Bruce of the Queensland Skeptics Association, astral projection is "just imagining", or "a dream state". Although there is rigorous mathematical support for parallel universes,[61] Bruce writes that the existence of an astral plane is contrary to the limits of science. “We know how many possibilities there are for dimensions and we know what the dimensions do. None of it correlates with things like astral projection.” Bruce attributes astral experiences such as "meetings" alleged by practitioners to confirmation bias and coincidences.[62]

The psychologist Donovan Rawcliffe has written astral projection can be explained by delusion, hallucination and vivid dreams.[63]

Arthur W. Wiggins, writing in Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends...and Pseudoscience Begins, said that purported evidence of the ability to astral travel great distances and give descriptions of places visited is predominantly anecdotal. In 1978, Ingo Swann provided a test of his alleged ability to astral travel to Jupiter and observe details of the planet. Actual findings and information were later compared to Swann's claimed observations. According to an evaluation by James Randi, Swann's accuracy was "unconvincing and unimpressive" with an overall score of 37 percent. Wiggins considers astral travel an illusion, and looks to neuroanatomy, human belief, imagination and prior knowledge to provide prosaic explanations for those claiming to experience it.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ It is also believed that the "astral body" is the soul leaving the body and travelling through the spiritual realm,(astral plane). Astral projection. (n.d.). Webster's New Millennium Dictionary of English, Preview Edition (v 0.9.7). Retrieved June 21, 2008, from Dictionary.com website
  2. ^ Suki Miller, After Death: How People around the World Map the Journey after Death (1995)
  3. ^ Dr. Roger J. Woolger, Beyond Death: Transition and the Afterlife, accessed online June 2008 at the website of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/PDF/RWoolgerTransition.pdf.
  4. ^ Sylvan Muldoon, Hereward Carrington. (1929). Projection of the Astral Body. Rider and Company. ISBN 0-7661-4604-9
  5. ^ Leonard Zusne, Warren H. Jones. (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-8058-0508-7
  6. ^ a b Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 103-106. ISBN 978-1573929790
  7. ^ a b Brian Regal. (2009). Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia. Greenwood. p. 29. ISBN 978-1591020868 "Other than anecdotal eyewitness accounts, there is no evidence of the ability to astral project, the existence of other planes, or of the Akashic Record."
  8. ^ Dodds, E.R. Proclus: The Elements of Theology. A revised text with translation, introduction, and commentary, 2nd edition 1963, Appendix.
  9. ^ Pagel, Walter (1967). William Harvey's Biological Ideas. Karger Publishers. pp. 147–148. ISBN 3-8055-0962-6. 
  10. ^ John Gregory, The Neoplatonists, Kyle Cathie 1991 pp15–16
  11. ^ Besant, Annie Wood (1897). The Ancient Wisdom: An Outline of Theosophical Teachings. Theosophical publishing society. ISBN 0-524-02712-9. 
  12. ^ Projection of the Astral Body by Carrington and Muldoon
  13. ^ Out of Body Experiences: How to have them and what to expect by Robert Peterson (chapters 5, 17, 22)
  14. ^ Ecclesiastes 12:6
  15. ^ Rabbi Nosson Scherman, ed. (2011). The ArtScroll English Tanach. ArtScroll Series (First ed.). Brooklyn, New York: Mesorah Publications, Ltd. p. 1150. ISBN 1-4226-1065-9. 
  16. ^ http://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/3223908
  17. ^ 2 Corinthians 12:2
  18. ^ Brent E. McNeely, "The Miraj of Muhammad in an Ascension Typology", p3
  19. ^ Buhlman, William, "The Secret of the Soul", 2001, ISBN 978-0-06-251671-8, p111
  20. ^ Brown, Dennis; Morris, Stephen (2003). "Religion and Human Experience". A Student's Guide to A2 Religious Studies: for the AQA Specification. Rhinegold Eeligious Studies Study Guides. London, UK: Rhinegold. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-904226-09-3. OCLC 257342107. Retrieved 2012-01-10. "The revelation of the Qur'an to Muhammad [includes] his Night Journey, an out-of-body experience where the prophet was miraculously taken to Jerusalem on the back of a mythical beast...." 
  21. ^ a b Melton, J. G. (1996). Out-of-the-body Travel. In Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Thomson Gale. ISBN 978-0-8103-9487-2. 
  22. ^ Chia, Mantak (1989, 2007). Fusion of the Five Elements. Destiny Books. pp. 89+. ISBN 1-59477-103-0. 
  23. ^ Erzeng, Yang (2007). The Story of Han Xiangzi. University of Washington Press. pp. 207–209. ISBN 978-0-295-98690-6. 
  24. ^ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Autobiography_of_a_Yogi/Chapter_3
  25. ^ Osho, The Transmission of the Lamp, Chapter 3, Rebel Press
  26. ^ Baba: 90, 91.
  27. ^ Clarke, Peter Bernard (2000). Japanese new religions: in global perspective, Volume 1999 (annotated ed.). Routledge. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-7007-1185-7. 
  28. ^ Ramesh Chopra Academic Dictionary Of Mythology 2005, p. 144
  29. ^ Patrick Drazen A Gathering of Spirits: Japan's Ghost Story Tradition: from Folklore and Kabuki to Anime and Manga 2011, p. 131
  30. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985: 7–8, 12, 23–24,26, 27–29, 30, 31
  31. ^ Merkur 1985: 4–6
  32. ^ Hoppál 1975: 228
  33. ^ Fock 1963: 16
  34. ^ Chic Cicero, Chic C, Sandra Tabatha Cicero The Essential Golden Dawn, Llewellyn Worldwide, 2003.
  35. ^ Arthur A.Powell, THE ASTRAL BODY AND OTHER ASTRAL PHENOMENA, The Theosophical Publishing House, London, England; Wheaton,Ill, U.S.A.; Adyar, Chennai, India, 1927, reprinted in 1954 and 1965, page 7, online June 2008 at http://hpb.narod.ru/AstralBodyByPowell-A.htm
  36. ^ Henri Corbin, Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn Arabi, tr. Ralph Mannheim, Bollingen XCI, Princeton U.P., 1969
  37. ^ e.g. William Judge, The Ocean of Theosophy 2nd Ed. TPH, 1893, Chapter 5, book online June 2008 at http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/ocean/oce-hp.htm
  38. ^ Astral-Projections.com"Secret Guide To Instant Astral Projection"
  39. ^ a b Journeys Out of the Body by Robert A. Monroe, p 60. Anchor Press, 1977.
  40. ^ Astral Dynamics by Robert Bruce Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc, 1999. p 25-27, 30-31
  41. ^ a b Astral Dynamics by Robert Bruce. Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc, 1999 ISBN 1-57174-143-7
  42. ^ Heindel, Max, The Rosicrucian Mysteries (Chapter IV, The Constitution of Man: Vital Body - Desire Body - Mind), 1911, ISBN 0-911274-86-3
  43. ^ a b Monroe, Robert. Far Journeys. ISBN 0-385-23182-2
  44. ^ Frederick Lawton Balzac The Echo Library, 2007, p. 18
  45. ^ Substantial bibliography of general OBE and astral projection literature
  46. ^ A biography of Robert Monroe by Susan Blackmore
  47. ^ A biography of Oliver Fox by Susan Blackmore
  48. ^ A biography of Sylvan Muldoon by Susan Blackmore
  49. ^ A biography of Yram by Susan Blackmore
  50. ^ Coast To Coast archives of shows featuring Robert Bruce
  51. ^ Coast To Coast archives of shows featuring William Buhlman
  52. ^ Coast To Coast archives of shows featuring Albert Taylor
  53. ^ See chapter V of the book Crown of Life by Kirpal Singh available online at [1]
  54. ^ [2]
  55. ^ [3]
  56. ^ [4]
  57. ^ [5]
  58. ^ Greer, John (1967). Astral Projection. In The New Encyclopedia of the Occult. Llewellyn Worldwide. ISBN 1-56718-336-0. 
  59. ^ Robert Todd Carroll (31 July 2003). The skeptic's dictionary: a collection of strange beliefs, amusing deceptions, and dangerous delusions. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-471-27242-7. Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
  60. ^ Blackmore, Susan (1991). "Near-Death Experiences: In or out of the body?". Skeptical Inquirer 1991, 16, 34-45. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  61. ^ "Parallel universe proof boosts time travel hopes", Daily Telegraph
  62. ^ Frazer, Peter (September 30, 2010). "Astral projection? In your dreams, say sceptics". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
  63. ^ Donovan Rawcliffe. (1988). Occult and Supernatural phenomena. Dover Publications. p. 123
  64. ^ Charles M. Wynn; Arthur W. Wiggins; Sidney Harris (2001). Quantum leaps in the wrong direction: where real science ends-- and pseudoscience begins. Joseph Henry Press. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-0-309-07309-7. Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
  • Baba, Meher (1967). Discourses. Vol. II. San Francisco: Sufism Reoriented. ISBN 1-880619-09-1.
  • Fock, Niels (1963). Waiwai. Religion and society of an Amazonian tribe. Nationalmuseets skrifter, Etnografisk Række (Ethnographical series), VIII. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark. 
  • Hoppál, Mihály (1975). "Az uráli népek hiedelemvilága és a samanizmus". In Hajdú, Péter. Uráli népek. Nyelvrokonaink kultúrája és hagyományai (in Hungarian). Budapest: Corvina Kiadó. pp. 211–233. ISBN 963-13-0900-2.  The title means: “Uralic peoples / Culture and traditions of our linguistic relatives”; the chapter means “The belief system of Uralic peoples and the shamanism”.
  • Hoppál, Mihály (2005). Sámánok Eurázsiában (in Hungarian). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-8295-3.  The title means “Shamans in Eurasia”, the book is written in Hungarian, but it is published also in German, Estonian and Finnish. Site of publisher with short description on the book (in Hungarian)
  • Kleivan, Inge; B. Sonne (1985). Eskimos: Greenland and Canada. Iconography of religions, section VIII, "Arctic Peoples", fascicle 2. Leiden, The Netherlands: Institute of Religious Iconography • State University Groningen. E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-07160-1. 
  • Merkur, Daniel (1985). Becoming Half Hidden: Shamanism and Initiation among the Inuit. : Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis • Stockholm Studies in Comparative Religion. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. ISBN 91-22-00752-0. 
  • Klemp, Harold (2003). Past Lives, Dreams, and Soul Travel. Eckankar. Minneapolis, MN. [Eckankar Web site: http://www.eckankar.org]: Eckankar. ISBN 1-57043-182-5. 
  • Roi, Alex. Astral Projection and Lucid Dreams, [Web site=http://www.howtoluciddreamsfast.org]. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]