|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
The classical astro-geodetic leveling is a reasonably accurate method to derive the terrestrial geoid, provided a starting point is given. It combines the precise determination of the true zenith (geographic or astronomical positioning) with geodetic measurements and coordinate calculations.
Modern astro-geodetic methods also use satellite measurements (optical and electronic, LASER etc.), with charge-coupled device (CCD) observations, and combinations of terrestrial and GPS data (especially for precise heighting and for the stabilisation of geoid solutions).