The term impact structure is closely related to the terms impact crater or meteorite impact crater, and is used in cases in which erosion or burial have destroyed or masked the original topographic feature with which we normally associate the term crater. This is the fate of almost all old impact craters on Earth, unlike the ancient pristine craters preserved on the Moon and other geologically inactive rocky bodies with old surfaces in the Solar System. Impact structure is synonymous with the less commonly used term astrobleme meaning "star wound".
In an impact structure, the typical visible and topographic expression of an impact crater are no longer obvious. Any meteorite fragments that may once have been present would be long since eroded away. Possible impact structures may be initially recognized by their anomalous geological character or geophysical expression. These may still be confirmed as impact structures by the presence of shocked minerals (particularly shocked quartz), shatter cones, geochemical evidence of extraterrestrial material or other methods.
- Complex crater
- Traces of Catastrophe book from Lunar and Planetary Institute - comprehensive reference on impact crater science
- Earth Impact Database
- Impact event
- Moore, Jeffrey M.; Black, Greg; Buratti, Bonnie; Phillips, Cynthia B.; Spencer, John; Sullivan, Robert (2009). "Surface Properties, Regolith, and Landscape Degradation". In Pappalardo, Robert T. Europa. The University of Arizona space science series. McKinnon, William B.; Khurana, Krishan. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. p. 341. ISBN 978-0-8165-2844-8.
Bodies with current geological activity such as Io and Earth have very few recognizable impact craters—Io, in fact, is so volcanically active that not a single impact crater, of any size, has been found on its surface to date. The Earth has about 150 recognized craters, but many have been geologically modified and would be difficult to recognize from orbit. On the other hand, geologically inactive bodies with old surfaces, such as Earth's Moon or Callisto, are covered with impact craters of all sizes.
- French, Bevan M (1998). Traces of Catastrophe: A Handbook of Shock-Metamorphic Effects in Terrestrial Meteorite Impact Structures. Houston, Texas: Lunar and Planetary Institute. p. 120. LPI Contribution No. 954.
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- Terrestrial Impact Craters at the Lunar and Planetary Institute