From the top to bottom, left to right: skyline of the city from the Paraguay River, Citibank Tower, the Cabildo of Asunción, the National Pantheon of the Heroes, Palacio de los López, Hotel Guaraní[disambiguation needed]
|Nickname(s): Mother of Cities|
|Founded||August 15, 1537|
|• Intendant||Arnaldo Samaniego|
|• City||117 km2 (45.2 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,000 km2 (400 sq mi)|
|Elevation||43 m (141 ft)|
|• Density||4,411/km2 (11,420/sq mi)|
|Area code(s)||(+595) 21|
|HDI (2011)||0.742 – high|
The Ciudad de Asunción is an autonomous capital district not part of any department. The metropolitan area, called Gran Asunción, includes the cities of San Lorenzo, Fernando de la Mora, Lambaré, Luque, Mariano Roque Alonso, Ñemby, San Antonio, Limpio, Capiatá and Villa Elisa, which are part of the Central Department. The Asunción metropolitan area has more than 2 million inhabitants. The Municipality of Asunción is listed on the Asunción Stock Exchange, as BVPASA: MUA, a unique feature of any city.
It is the home of the national government, principal port, and the chief industrial and cultural centre of the country.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Education
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Tourist attractions
- 8 Sports
- 9 Culture
- 10 Media
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (March 2012)|
Asunción is one of the oldest cities in South America and the longest continually inhabited area in the Rio de la Plata Basin; for this reason that it is known as "Mother of Cities". It was from Asunción that the colonial expeditions departed to found other cities, including the second foundation of Buenos Aires and of other important cities such as Villarrica, Corrientes, Santa Fe and Santa Cruz de la Sierra.
The site of the city may have been first visited by Spanish conqueror Juan de Ayolas, on his way north, up the Paraguay River, looking for a passage to the mines of Alto Perú (present-day Bolivia). Later, Juan de Salazar y Espinosa and Gonzalo de Mendoza, relative of Pedro de Mendoza, were sent in search of Ayolas, but were unable to find him. On his way up and then down the river, de Salazar stopped briefly at a bay in the left bank to resupply his ships. He found the natives friendly, and decided to found a fort there, in August, 1537. He named it Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción.
In 1542, natives destroyed Buenos Aires, and the Spaniards fled to Asunción. Thus, the city became the center of a large Spanish colonial province comprising part of Brazil, present-day Paraguay and northeastern Argentina: the Giant Province of the Indies. In 1603 Asunción was the seat of the First Synod of Asunción, which set guidelines for the evangelization of the natives in their lingua franca, Guaraní.
In 1731, an uprising under José de Antequera y Castro was one of the first rebellions against Spanish colonial rule. The uprising failed, but it was the first sign of the independent spirit that was growing among the criollos, mestizos and natives of Paraguay. The event influenced the independence of Paraguay, which then materialised in 1811. The secret reunions between the independence leaders to plan an ambush against the Spanish Governor in Paraguay Bernardo de Velasco were held at the home of Juana María de Lara, in downtown Asunción. On the night of May 14 and May 15 the rebels succeeded and were able to force governor Velasco to surrender. Today, Lara's home is known as Casa de la Independencia (House of the Independence) and serves as a museum and historical building.
After Paraguay became independent, there was significant change in Asunción. Under the presidency of Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia roads were built throughout the city and the streets were named. However, it was during the presidency of Carlos Antonio López that Asunción (and Paraguay) progressed, as the new president implemented new economic policies. More than 400 schools, metallurgic factories and the first railroad service in South America were built during the López presidency. After López died, his son Francisco Solano López became the new president and led the country through the disastrous Paraguayan War that lasted for five years. After the end of the armed conflict, Asunción was occupied by Brazilian troops until 1876.
Many historians have claimed that this war provoked a steady downfall of the city and country, since it massacred two thirds of the country's population. Progress slowed down greatly afterwards, and the economy remained stagnated.
After the Paraguayan War, Asunción began a slow recovery attempt. Towards the end of the 19th century and during the early years of the 20th century, a flow of immigrants from Europe and the Ottoman Empire came to the city. This led to a change in the appearance of the city as many new buildings were built and Asunción went through an era more prosperous than any since the war.
Asunción is located between the parallels 25° 15' and 25° 20' of south latitude and between the meridians 57° 40' and 57° 30' of west longitude. The city sits on the left bank of the Paraguay River, almost at the confluence of this river with the River Pilcomayo. The Paraguay River and the Bay of Asunción in the northwest separate the city from the Occidental Region of Paraguay and Argentina in the south part of the city. The rest of the city is surrounded by the Central Department.
With its location along the Paraguay River, the city offers many landscapes; it spreads out over gentle hills in a pattern of rectangular blocks. Places such as Cerro Lambaré, a hill located in Lambaré, offer a spectacular show in the springtime because of the blossoming lapacho trees in the area. Parks such as Parque Independencia and Parque Carlos Antonio López offer large areas of typical Paraguayan vegetation and are frequented by tourists. There are several small hills and slightly elevated areas throughout the city, including Cabará, Clavel, Tarumá, Cachinga, and Tacumbú, among others.
Asunción, seen from the International Space Station
Districts and neighborhoods
Asunción is organized geographically into districts and these in turn bring together the different neighborhoods.
|Neighborhood||Population (2002)||Neighborhood||Population (2002)||Neighborhood||Population (2002)|
|1. Itá Enramada||4845||24. Seminario||5070||47. Pinoza||6621|
|2. Santa Ana||5775||25. Vista Alegre||12,611||48. Jara||13,554|
|3. Bañado Santa Ana||8374||26. Panambí Retá||2386||49. Banco San Miguel||953|
|4. Roberto L. Pettit||20,201||27. Panambí Verá||2591||50. Tablada Nueva||6573|
|5. Republicano||8429||28. San Pablo||21,787||51. Virgen del Huerto||4809|
|6. Pirizal||4022||29. Terminal||4305||52. Virgen de la Asunción||9983|
|7. San Vicente||15,412||30. Hipódromo||8348||53. Bella Vista||6657|
|8. Bañado Tacumbú||10,958||31. Nazareth||7133||54. Santo Domingo||2591|
|9. Obrero||19,823||32. Villa Aurelia||9871||55. Cañada del Ybaray||3166|
|10. Tacumbú||13,366||33. Los Laureles||3517||56. Las Lomas (Carmelitas)||5604|
|11. Sajonia||14,873||34. Mariscal Estigarribia||7711||57. Madame Lynch||8589|
|12. Itá Pytá Punta||4225||35. San Cristóbal||6618||58. Salvador del Mundo||3883|
|13. San Antonio||9544||36. Herrera||5149||59. Ñu Guazú||1342|
|14. Dr. Francia||10,925||37. Santa María||4591||60. Mbocayaty||6512|
|15. La Encarnación||4928||38. Ytay||3054||61. Mburucuyá||8377|
|16. Catedral||3676||39. San Jorge||4844||62. Trinidad||4515|
|17. General Díaz||6068||40. Ycuá Satí||6687||63. Virgen de Fátima||6064|
|18. Pettirossi||11380||41. Manorá||1898||64. San Rafael||10,732|
|19. San Roque||6355||42. Villa Morra||4114||65. Botánico||9982|
|20. Ricardo Brugada (Chacarita)||10,455||43. Recoleta||10,230||66. Zeballos Cué||18,553|
|21. San Felipe||5679||44. Tembetary||3515||67. Loma Pytá||6231|
|22. Las Mercedes||4827||45. Mburicaó||7691||68. San Blas||3651|
|23. Ciudad Nueva||8584||46. General Caballero||8128||69. Santa Rosa||3546|
|70. Mariscal López||5025|
Asunción has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) that closely borders on a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) and a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen: Am), characterized by hot, humid summers and mild winters. Relative humidity is high in the summer, so the heat index is higher than the true air temperature. The average annual temperature is 23 °C (73 °F). The average annual precipitation is 1,400 millimetres (55 in), distributed in over 80 days yearly.
Asunción generally has a very short dry season between April to September, but the coldest months are June and July, which can get frost on average one day a year. The wet season covers the remainder of the year. The climate of Asunción can be described as hot and humid for most of the year.
During the wet season, Asunción is generally hot and humid though towards the end of this season, it becomes noticeably cooler. In contrast, Asunción's dry season is pleasantly mild. Asuncion's annual precipitation values observe a summer maximum, due to severe subtropical summer thunderstorms which travel southward from northern Paraguay, originating in the Gran Chaco region of the northwestern part of the country. The wettest and driest months of the year are April and July respectively. receiving 166 mm (6.54 in) and 39 mm (1.54 in) of average total monthly precipitation respectively.
|Climate data for Asunción (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||40.8
|Average high °C (°F)||33.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||28.2
|Average low °C (°F)||22.8
|Record low °C (°F)||12.4
|Rainfall mm (inches)||147.2
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||8||7||7||8||7||7||4||5||6||8||8||8||83|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||276||246||254||228||205||165||195||223||204||242||270||295||2,803|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organization|
|Source #2: NOAA updated to 9/2012., Danish Meteorological Institute (sun only)|
The population is approximately 540,000 people in the city proper. Roughly 30% of Paraguay's 6 million people live within Greater Asunción. Sixty-five percent of the total population in the city are under the age of 30.
The population has increased greatly during the last few decades as a consequence of internal migration from other Departments of Paraguay, at first because of the economic boom in the 1970s, and later because of economic recession in the countryside. The adjacent cities in the Gran Asunción area, such as Luque, Lambaré, San Lorenzo, Fernando de la Mora and Mariano Roque Alonso, have absorbed most of this influx due to the low cost of the land and easy access to Asunción. The city has ranked as the least expensive city to live in for five years running by Mercer Human Resource Consulting.
Population by sex and age according to the 2002 census
|Age||Quantity (census 2002)||Men||Women|
|1990/1992|| 2000/2001|| 2010|
Most of the population of Asunción professes the Catholic religion. However, in Paraguay's capital there are also places of worship of other Christian denominations including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, as well as other religions including Islam, Buddhism and Judaism.
The main language spoken is Spanish (56.9%), Guaraní language is spoken by (11.1%), the (27.4%) of the population speaks Jopará, which is a positive dialect of mixing (pidgin) from Spanish to Guaraní. Other languages show a presence of 4.5% in the population.
The city has a large number of both public and private schools. The best-known public schools are the Colegio Nacional de la Capital (which is one of the oldest schools in the city, founded in 1877), Colegio Nacional Presidente Franco and Colegio Nacional Asunción Escalada. The best-known private schools are Colegio Lumen, Colegio Inmaculado Corazón de María, Salesianito, Colegio Cristo Rey, Colegio Internacional, Colegio San José, Colegio San Ignacio de Loyola, Colegio Santa Teresa de Jesús, American School of Asunción, Colegio Dante Alighieri, Colegio Santa Clara, Colegio Campoalto, Colegio Goethe and Colegio de la Asunción.
The main universities in the city are the Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (private Catholic university) and the Universidad Nacional de Asunción (state-run). The Católica has a small campus in the downtown area next to the Cathedral and a larger campus in the Santa Ana neighborhood, outwards toward the adjoining city of Lambaré, while the Universidad Nacional has its main campus in the city of San Lorenzo, some 5 km (3 mi) eastward from Asunción. There are also a number of smaller privately run universities such as Uninorte, Universidad Americana and Universidad Autónoma de Asunción, among others.
In terms of commerce, this sector has grown considerably in recent years stretching towards the suburbs where shopping malls and supermarkets have been built. Paraguay's only stock exchange, the BVPASA, is located here. The city itself is listed on it, as BVPASA: MUA.
In Asuncion, the most important companies, businesses and investment groups are headquartered. This city is the economic center of Paraguay, followed by Ciudad del Este and Encarnación.
|Major financial buildings in Asunción|
Because the Paraguay River runs right next to Asunción the city is served by a river terminal in the downtown area. This port is strategically located inside a bay and it is where most freight enters and leaves the country. There is a lesser terminal in the Sajonia neighbourhood, and a shuttle port in Ita Enramada, almost opposite the Argentine city of Clorinda, Formosa.
Public transportation is used heavily and is served through buses that reach all the regions of the city and surrounding dormitory communities. The main long-distance bus terminal is on the Avenida República Argentina and its bus services connect all of the Departments of Paraguay, as well as international routes to nearby countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay.
The city is home to the Godoi Museum, the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes (which contains old paintings from the 19th century), the Church of La Encarnación, the Metropolitan Cathedral and the National Pantheon of the Heroes, a smaller version of Les Invalides in Paris, where many of the nation's heroes are entombed. Other landmarks include the Palacio de los López, the old Senate building (a modern building opened to house Congress in 2003) and the Casa de la Independencia (one of the few examples of colonial architecture remaining in the city).
Calle Palma is the main street downtown where several historical buildings, plazas, shops, restaurants and cafes are located. The "Manzana de la Rivera", located in front of the Presidential Palace, is a series of old traditional homes that have been restored and serve as a museum showcasing the architectural evolution of the city. The old railway station maintains the old trains that now are used in tourist trips to the cities of Luque and Areguá.
Asunción also has luxurious malls that contain shops selling well-known brands. The biggest shopping malls are Shopping del Sol; Mariscal López Shopping, Shopping Villa Morra in the central part of the city, and the Mall Excelsior downtown.
Association football is the main sport in Paraguay, and Asunción is home to some of the most important and traditional teams in the country. These include Olimpia, Cerro Porteño and Club Libertad, Club Nacional, Club Guaraní and Club Sol de América, which have their own stadiums and sport facilities for affiliated members. The Defensores del Chaco stadium is the main football stadium of the country and is located in the neighbourhood of Sajonia, just a few minutes away from the centre of Asunción. Since it is a national stadium sometimes it is used for other activities such as rock concerts. Asunción is also the heart of Paraguayan rugby union.
Asunción also hosts several symphony orchestras, and ballet, opera and theater companies. The most well known orchestras are the City of Asunción's Symphony Orchestra (OSCA), the National Symphony Orchestra and the Northern University Symphony Orchestra. Among professional ballet companies, most renowned are the Asunción Classic and Modern Municipal Ballet, the National Ballet and the Northern University Ballet. The main opera company is the Northern University Opera Company. A long-standing theater company is Arlequín Theater Foundation's. Traditional venues include the Municipal Theater, the Paraguayan-Japanese Center, the Central Bank's Great Lyric Theater, the Juan de Salazar Cultural Center, the Americas Theater, the Tom Jobim Theater, the Arlequín Theater and the Manzana de la Rivera. Asunción is also the center of Architecture in Paraguay.
The seven treasures of cultural heritage material of Asunción
The choice of the seven treasures of cultural heritage material has been developed Asunción during the months of April and May 2009. Promoted by the "Organización Capital Americana de la Cultura", with the collaboration of the Paraguayan authorities participating in the election was carried out with the intention to disclose the material cultural heritage of Assumption.
A total of 45 candidates have chosen to become one of the treasures of cultural heritage material Assumption. The result of the vote, which involved 12,417 people, is as follows:
|The 7 treasures of Asunción|
|Palacio de los López||Panteón Nacional de los Héroes||Cabildo|
|Catedral Metropolitana de Asunción||Hotel Guaraní||Teatro Municipal Ignacio A. Pane|
|Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad|
The most read newspapers are: Diario ABC Color, Diario Popular, Diario La Nación, Diario Última Hora, and Diario Crónica, although the most successful are Diario Popular and Diario ABC Color.
- "Paraguay Facts and Figures". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
- "World Weather Information Service - Asuncion". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- "ASUNCION Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- "Paraguay - Asuncion (pg 208)". Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931-1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "MECDigital " Demografía". Mec.gov.py. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "Worldwide Cost of Living Survey 2007". Mercer.com. 2007-06-18. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- "Paraguay, quinto en esperanza de vida, en A. Latina - ABC Digital". Archivo.abc.com.py. 2009-05-22. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
- "Paraguay - Estadísticas". Guiadelmundo.org.uy. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
- [dead link]
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