At-Tayyib Abu'l-Qasim

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Aṭ-Ṭayyib Al-Qāṣim ibn al-Manṣūr (Arabic: الطيب أبو القاسم بن المنصور‎‎) was, according to Ṭāyyibī Mustā‘līd Ismāʿīlī Muslims, the 21st and the last Fatimid Imām (the hereditary leader of the Muslim community in the direct line of ‘Ali). Al-Qāṣim was the son of the 20th Fatimid Imām, Mansur al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah who ruled Egypt from 1101-1130 AD. He was born in Al-Moizziyyatul Qaherah on Sunday the 4th of Rabiul Aakher, 524 AH or (March 16, 1130 AD), and he was few months old when his father Amir assassinated by Nizari (Hassan-i Sabbah Assassins team) on Tuesday the 3rd of Zu-l-qadha, 524 AH[1] (October 7, 1130 AD). Tayyib is also reported about two years old.[2] This can be at the time when Hafiz aspired to 'sovereignty', Tayyib went into hiding [3] and, Hafiz declared himself Imam in 526 AH.[4]

Birth and Infancy[edit]

As per chronicle of Ibn al-Muyassar(d.677): "In Rabi al-awwal(of..524 AH)..Qasim al-Tayyib was born to al-Amir;...Cairo was decorated..New suits of clothes were issued to the troops...at the 'aqiqa ceremony... in presence of al-Amir...child was brought in, and Chief Qadi Ibn al- Muyassar was given the honour of holding it...the palace was filled with fruits and other sweets..."[5]

It is said that the guardian of Tayyib was Ibn Madyan, who have hidden him in a mosque. The infant son of al-Amir was supposed to carry in a basket of reeds by Abu Turab in which were vegetables (‘dishes of cooked leeks and onions and carrots’), and the baby wrapped in ‘swaddling clothes was on the bottom with the food above him, and he brought him to the cemetery and the wet nurse suckled him in this mosque, and he concealed the matter from al-Hafiz until the baby grew up and began to be called Kufayfa, “little basket.”’ [6][7]

Ṭayyib in The Occultation[edit]

After the executuion of Imam al-Amir in Zul-qaad, 524 AH, Dai Ibne Madyan propogated d`awa towards Imam Tayyib, whilst his half uncle Abd-al-Majeed(Al-Hafiz) was entrusted with affairs of state. This arrangement did not lasted much, Ali (bin(s/o) Afzal) (Kutayfat) expressed his enmity to Abd-al-MajeedAl-Hafiz & other Imam follower(Aimmat Tahereen) and aimed to take over Egypt. He imprisoned Abdul and began his subterfuge assisted by Al-Hasan (bin(s/o) Abd-al-Majeed). Imam follower were killed, their possessions were seized, Ibne Madyan and four figureheads of D`awa, namely; Naslaan, al-Azizi, Raslaan and Qunis were slain.[8]

There was unrest amongst al-Amir follower. Emir Yanis 'organized resistance, and found a great response, specially among the soldiers of the Kutami 'the hereditary mainstay of Fatimid rule'. On 16 Muharram, 526 AH, Ali s/o Afzal was 'killed while riding outside the city' and 'Abd al-Majid(Al-Hafiz) 'fetched from his prison' and 'restored as regent(Wali) of Imam Tayyib'. The event was commemorated annually, right to the end of the Fatimid dynasty, named as 'Eid al-Nasr' held on that date. This is expressly stated by al-Maqrizi(cf. al-Maqrizi, Khitat, I, 357, 490), and is confirmed by a 'coin struck in Alexandria in 526, bearing the old legend: 'Abd al-Majid wali-ul-ahd (representative) al-muslimyn'.[9] Meantime Dai Abu Ali ( brother in law of IbnMadyan) had "managed to go into hiding with Imam Al-Tayyib and followers toward the westward land".[10]

‘Restoration’ on 16th Muharram(1), 526 AH above ‘meant a return to status quo( Mazid as reagent of Imam Tayyib)’ of the situation reported just after assassination of Imam Amir in Zul-Qaad(11), 524 AH. There was internal grid of Mazid to become Imam himself. Tayyib name was 'suppressed from the very beginning' of regency of Abd-al-Majid and it was "somehow managed to conceal the existence of al-Tayyib". To further legitimized Majid's caliphate it was "suggested that he was secretly killed at the instigation of Abd al-Majid" and there was dream narrated of al-Amir with: "…story that the late Caliph.. prophesied …poor man, who will be killed ..one of his wives was pregnant .. was to give birth to a male child destined to become the Caliph under the tutorship of Abd al-Majid(Al-Hafiz) ....". In these circumstances on "3rd Rabi–ul-Akher(4), 526AH" it was announced by Majid(Al-Hafiz) himself as "Amir al- Muminin(leader)" in place of "Wali-e-ahd(representative) al-Muslimin".[11][12]

Tayyibi in Yemen[edit]

There was sijill(Royal order)(524 AH) of al-Amir to Yemen('testimony of al- Khattab available) 'announcing birth of the heir al- Tayyib in the court of al- Mallika al-Sayyida(Arwa al-Sulayhi)' by 'Egyptian envoy' Muhammad b.Haydra. On the occasion of the commemoration of the murdered Imam, the envoy said: "..appointed by his(Amir) nass...al-Imam al-Tayyib...it is in vein that mislead people think it will diminish by your(Amir) death.."[13] Later in 526 AH, Abd al Malik in his official correspondence to queen Arwa al-Sulayhi declared himself 'Amir al- Muminin(leader)' in place of 'Wali-e-ahd(representative) al-Muslimin'. According to this Queen al-Hurrah Arwa al-Sulayhi found it a betrayals as per earlier sijill of Imam Amir and of Malik himself declaring 'Malik a Wali of Imam'.[14]

As per 'Uyun al Akhbar', "She (Queen Arwa al-Sulayhi) never ceased …..remain faithful to al-Tayyib….In the preamble of the will….enumerated all the Imams; the list ends with al-Tayyib. The text ..give a detailed description of the Queen's jewellery .. brought .. for the inspection.. all the jewellery is bequeathed, as a qurbdn, to the ..Imam al-Tayyib,...…Al-Ahmad..al-Sulayhi is appointed as executor; his duty is to deliver the jewels, after the Queen's death, ..at the Gate of the Friend of God(bab-ul- wali-ul-llah), ..to the person that will be appointed by the order of the Imam(Tayyib) to receive them...". She anointed Da'i al-Mutlaq / vicegerent on behalf of Imam Tayyib. The Dai al-Mutlaq would have full authority to govern the community in all matters both spiritual and temporal, and Dai Zoeb bin musa was designated first for the post with Ibrahim as his assistant who has taken over next Dai after the death of Zoeb. Other Malik(Hafiz) follower reports Zuray'ids as subsequent head of the Hafizi party in Yemen.[15]

Taiyyibi Da'is[edit]

The line of the Da'is continued until the 24th Dai Yusuf Najmuddin ibn Sulaiman in Yemen. On behalf of Da'i of Yemen, there were Wali ("representative" or "caretaker") of the Fatimid Dawat appointed in India. Moulai Abadullah[16](covered North India) and Moulai Nuruddin (covered South India)[17] were first two to influence in India and initiate Ismaili Tayyibi Faith. Syedi Fakhruddin[18] son of Vazir Tarmal of King Sidhraj of Gujrat(1094-1134AD) who accepted the Islamic faith was prominent, covered Rajasthan. His Mausoleum is in Galiakot and visited by all the area people irrespective of their cast.

Due to prosecution by the local ruler in Yemen, the Dawat then shifted to India under the 25th Da'i Jalal Shamshuddin.[19] This is continued till date (As of March 2015), and at present the largest Taiyabi-descended faction is the Dawoodi Bohra Da'wa whose leadership is disputed due to the 53rd Syedna succession controversy (Dawoodi Bohra). The other factions of Sulaimani Bohra are headed by their 52nd Da'i Al-Fakhri Abdullah, and the Alavi Bohra are headed by their 44th Da'i Abu Hatim Tayyib Ziyauddin (There are Sunni Bohra also who left Shia Bohra and converted to Sunni Islam en masse earlier).

Hafizi Ismāʿīlīs[edit]

Hafizi Mustā‘lī Ismāʿīlīs were those who continued to accept the legitimacy of Abd al-Majid as Fatimid Imam of Egypt between 1130-1169 instead of Imam aṭ-Ṭayyib Abī l-Qāṣim. After the end of their rule by Saladin they are apparently extinct. But the Tayyibi follower of Imam Tayyib continued in Yemen and Indian subcontinent.

Tayyib amongst Shia Islam[edit]

Details of all Ismāʿīlī imams are available in List of Ismaili Imams. Tree depicted Below indicates Imam Tayyib position in the Shia Islam history. Tree shia islam n3.pdf

References and External links[edit]

  • List of Syednas (according to Dawoodi Bohras)
  • The Ismaili, their history and doctrine by Farhad Daftary
  • Religion,learning and science by Young Lathan
  • Medieval Islamic civilisation by Joseph w. Meri, Bacharach
  • Sayyida Hurra: The Isma‘ili Sulayhid Queen of Yemenby Dr Farhad Daftary
  • Uyun al-akhbar written by Syedna Idris on the history of the Ismaili community from its origins up to the 12th century CE. period of the Fatimid caliphs and then the Tayyibi Ismaili community in Yemen.
  • http://www.alavibohra.org/

References[edit]

  1. ^ ‘al-Amir was killed on Tuesday’, p.198 'the cUyun has Tuesday the 3rd Dhu-l-qacda' p.195 foot note; Book:The Succession to the Fatimid Imam al-Amir; By: S M Stern; BRILL
  2. ^ http://ismaili.net/heritage/node/10639, http://ismaili.net/heritage/node/10675; Quote: ‘infant son of al-Amir is named, Tayyib, about two and half years old’
  3. ^ The succession of the Fatimd Imam al-Amir; by: S M Stern; p.200-201,as per Uyun-al-akhbar :"..Abd al-Majid, too, showed signs of apostasy (nifdq) and aspired to sovereignty"..."AbMi 'All went with the Imam into hiding"
  4. ^ The succession of the Fatimd Imam al-Amir; by: S M Stern; p-206 Quote: "Other coins (Alexandria, 526)..read as follows: "Al-imam al-mahdl al-qa'im bi-amri-llah "(declaring Hafiz as Al-Imam)
  5. ^ The Succession to the Fatimid Imam Amir, by S M Stern, DRILL, p.196,97
  6. ^ http://ismaili.net/heritage/node/10675; Quote: ‘Anyhow, the chief guardian of Tayyib was Ibn Madyan, who is said to have hidden the minor Tayyib in a mosque called Masjid ar-Rahma. Makrizi tells that the infant son of al-Amir was carried in a basket after wrapping it up and covering it over with vegetables. Here in the mosque, a wet nurse cared for him’
  7. ^ http://archnet.org/system/publications/contents/3039/original/DPT0868.pdf?1384770478., p.9, THE CULT OF cALID SAINTS IN THE FATIMID MONUMENTS OF CAIRO, PART II: THE MAUSOLEA , By :CAROLINE WILLIAMS, page ‘47
  8. ^ The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines; By Farhad Daftary; p.283,284
  9. ^ The succession of the Fatimd Imam al-Amir; by: S M Stern;p.206,7
  10. ^ The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines; By Farhad Daftary; p.283,284
  11. ^ The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines; By Farhad Daftary; p.283,284
  12. ^ The succession of the Fatimd Imam al-Amir; by: S M Stern; p.201-204, 207
  13. ^ The succession of the Fatimd Imam al-Amir; by: S M Stern;p.223,24,25
  14. ^ The Ismaili..,Daftary, p.284, 285
  15. ^ The succession of the Fatimd Imam al-Amir; by: S M Stern;p.228,9
  16. ^ [1]; p. 378-79
  17. ^ [2]; 12.0 The Fatimid Da'i Al-Mu'ayyad: His Life , by: Dr. Abbas Hamdani, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (U.S.A.); Quote; "in the time of al-Mustansir, to Egypt and joined the lsma'ili faith at the bidding of Sayyidna al-Mu'ayyad from whom they acquired much knowledge. Their names were Lam Nath (Abadullah) and Rup Nath (later called Mawla'i Nurad-Din). Both of them returned from Egypt to their native village, Daham Gam, where their tombs still exist near Aurangabad."
  18. ^ [3]; Census of India, 1961: Rajasthan, India. Office of the Registrar General; 'Syedi Fakhruddin was the son of Tarmal, Vazir of king Sidhraj Jaysingh who ruled over Gujarat during the period 1094-1134 A.D. Tarmal had accepted the Islamic faith from the missionaries ( Moulai Abadullah) of the Imam al- Mustansir of the Fatimid dynasty which then ruled over a vast territory in western Asia and North Africa with capital as Cairo....'
  19. ^ [4], p.41

See also[edit]