Atassi family

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Al-Atassi Family
عائلة الأتاسي
Ethnicity Arab of Hashemite descent
Current region Homs
Place of origin  Syria
Notable members Hashim al-Atassi
Khaled al-Atassi
Wasfi al-Atassi
Nureddin al-Atassi
Lu'ay al-Atassi
Jamal al-Atassi
Connected families Al-Sayed Suleiman, Majaj
Traditions Traditional muftis of Homs
Estate Homs

Atassi, also spelled Atasi (Arabic: الأتاسي‎) is the name of a prominent family in Homs, Syria, of a noble and ancient lineage, dating back to the 16th century AD. More recently, members of the family lead the national movement against the French mandate. The power and prestige of the family reached an apex at the formation of the modern Republic of Syria in 1936, when its second head of state, Hashim al-Atassi was elected president. Two out of the seven members of the constitutional assembly who drafted the first constitution of Syria in 1919 were prominent Atassis: Wasfi al-Atassi and Hashim al-Atassi. Two more scions, Lu'ay al-Atassi and Nureddin al-Atassi, were in turn installed as heads of state in the 1960s. Family members included magistrates, governors, ambassadors, heads of political parties, military officers and other public officials throughout Ottoman and modern times.

Background[edit]

Many leading family members assumed prominent religious and political positions in Ottoman, French, and Independent Syria.

There are conflicting family traditions and documents presented for the meaning and the origin of the family/clan name. Some speak implausibly of the name al-Atassi having evolved from the word "العطاسي " (from "العطاس," meaning "the sneezer" in Arabic) which later changed to "الأطاسي" then to "الأتاسي" or Atassi. More logically and plausibly, the name is of Turkoman origin, meaning "saintly" or "connected to the saints" (ata=holy father, saint; and "si" = that of)--a befitting name as the family claimed and was respected to have descended from the Prophet Muhammad's own family clan of the Hashemites. There still many Turkoman clans in the vicinity of Hims and Hama, such as the Afshar, Ayrumlu, Buchak et al. Many members of the clan moved to non-Arabic speaking Turkey in the 16th century.

Being Hashemites in origin, and its members were recognized as "Ashraf", that is descendants of prophet Muhammad, inheriting the formal address of this class in legal court documents. The ancestors of the family moved between Yemen, Hejaz and Turkey before eventually establishing their presence in Homs sometime in the 16th century CE.[citation needed] Their religious authority as muftis of Homs, along with large land holdings in Homs, formed the basis of the family's wealth and influence.

The Atassi House of Hims has been divided into fifteen branches, most of which still use the name Atassi as the sole surname; however, there are two main exceptions. Al-Sayed Suleiman and Majaj are two cadet branches that are recognized as Atassi, although they have alternative surnames.

Atassi muftis of Homs and Tripoli[edit]

The office of Mufti of the town of Hims, the highest religious jurisdiction in the city, was hereditary in the Atassi family for over four centuries. At least eighteen Atassi scholars held this position. In addition, two Atassis are known to have been Muftis of the city of Tripoli as well. The Sibaie House of Homs was another scholarly family who were often in competition with the Atassi House for the seat of the mufti, and the Sibaie were able to secure it at least four times in the town history.

The following are members of the family who attained the position of mufti:

(Dates represent period served in that position)

Other members served as religious scholars in other capacities such as judges, chief clerks, and imams. One mufti, Sayed Ibraheem Efendi al-Atassi, also served as Mufti of Tripoli in the late 18th century. Taher al-Atassi served as the supreme judge of Basra in Iraq, and Nablus and Jerusalem in Palestine in the late Ottoman period.

Although members of the Atassi family were naturally involved in the politics of the city of Homs by virtue of holding the mufti position and by belonging to the wealthy class and being Ashraf, it was not until the late 19th century that they started holding non-religious governmental offices. Two scholars who held the position of mufti also held political offices: Khaled al-Atassi (1837–1908), and his son, Taher al-Atassi (1860–1940). In 1876, Sayed Khaled Efendi Al-Atassi was elected to the first parliament of the Ottoman Empire as the deputy from Homs and Hama. In 1922, Sayed Taher Efendi was elected to membership of the Council of the Syrian Union as the representative of Homs in the state of Damascus. Other Atassis have since held legislative positions.

The family achieved further influence through education with a tradition of sending the young men of the family to be educated at the Imperial capital of Istanbul during the Ottoman administration, and then to the Sorbonne and other European centers of learning during the French Mandate.

Atassi heads of state[edit]

  • Hashem al-Atassi, President of Syria: 1936-1939, December, 1949-September, 1950, September, 1950-December, 1951, February, 1954-September, 1955
  • Lu'ay al-Atassi, President of the Revolutionary Council, vested with presidential powers, 1963
  • Nureddin al-Atassi, President of Syria, 1966–1970

Atassi members elected to the parliament and ruling councils[edit]

(dates represent year elected)

Atassi ministers in various cabinets[edit]

Ambassadors[edit]

Atassi mayors of Homs[edit]

Ranking officers in the Syrian Military[edit]

In order of highest rank:

Other prominent figures[edit]

Suheir Atassi - the leading female secular activist in the Syrian opposition.

References[edit]

  • Atassi, B.H. "Bughyat Al-Nasi" the History of the Atassi Family-Bassel Atasi.
  • Islamic Court Registers of city of Homs.
  • al-Muradi, Khalil. Silk Al-Durar fi 'ayan al-Qarn al-thani sshar.
  • al-Bitar, Abdul-Razzaq. Hilyat al-bashar fi tarikh al-qarn al-thalith 'ashar.
  • As'ad (1985) Tarikh Homs, 2 volumes, Tripoli, تاريخ حمص تأليف خوري أسعد, in Arabic
  • Moubayed, Sami M., Steel and Silk: man and Men Who Shaped Syria 1900-2000. Cune Press, 2006.
  • Atassi Family Website